Asian American

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An Asian American can be generally defined as a person of Asian ancestry or origin who was born in or is an immigrant to the United States.

The term "Asian American" is credited to the historian Yuji Ichioka who, in the late 1960s, used it to describe members of a new pan-ethnic radical political identity who shared common histories, experiences, and goals. In the United States, this term has widely supplanted the term "oriental" which was popularly used before the 1990s to describe East Asian peoples regardless of nationality, upbringing, or origin. Some have argued "oriental" is politically loaded and referenced a colonial "other" (see orientalism).

"Asian American", like "Hispanic American", can not be defined as a similar group of people sharing similar cultures or physical features. For example, Indian Americans, Filipino Americans, and Japanese Americans are very different from each other in both culture and physical features. Like the term "Hispanic American", saying that a person is "Asian" is not specifically referring to a certain lifetyle or culture and could refer to a wide range of different Asian ethnic sub-groups.

Additionally, although the term "Asian" in the United States is most popularly used as a term to group peoples with physical characteristics resembling East Asian people, Asians from the Indian Subcontinent, and Southeast Asia (including the Philippines, Indonesia, and Malaysia) are also included in the Asian American grouping for cultural studies and academic works, as well as for official government and census purposes. However, until recent times, South Asians were previously categorized in the white category with immigrants from the middle east. Lobbying by South Asian business groups resulted in their placement into the "Asian" category.

2000 density of Asian Americans (red)
2000 density of Asian Americans (red)

While immigrants from the non-African parts of the "Middle East" (i.e Iran, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia) are all from the continent of Asia, they have generally neither been sufficiently visibly distinct as a group in America nor have they historically arrived in such large numbers to warrant attention as a major American racial or ethnic group until very recently (see September 11, 2001 attacks). As a result, they are not considered by most Americans to be typical Asians or Asian Americans, and are classified as "whites" for official racial purposes and popularly referred to as "Middle Eastern". For these same reasons, northern Asians such as Siberians and peoples from formerly Soviet Central Asian states are usually not spoken of as "Asian Americans" either and are part of Europe for the US Census racial purposes.



Metropolitan Areas with the Highest Proportion of Asian Americans (2000 Census)
Metropolitan Area Total population % of Asians
Honolulu, HI MSA 876,156 46.0
San Francisco/Oakland/San Jose, CA CMSA 7,039,362 18.4
Los Angeles/Riverside/ Orange County, CA CMSA 16,373,645 10.4
Sacramento/Yolo, CA CMSA 1,796,857 9.0
San Diego, CA MSA 2,813,833 8.9
Seattle/Tacoma/Bremerton, WA CMSA 3,554,760 7.9
New York/N. New Jersey/Long Is., NY/NJ/CT/PA CMSA 21,199,865 6.8
Washington/Baltimore, DC/MD/VA/WV CMSA 7,608,070 5.3
Houston–Sugar Land–Baytown, TX MSA (Greater Houston) 4,669,571 4.9
Las Vegas, NV/AZ MSA 1,563,282 4.7

The 2000 census recorded 10.2 million people who reported themselves as only Asian and 11.9 million people who reported themselves as Asian and at least one other race, 3.6% to 4.2% of the U.S. population. The largest ethnic subgroups were Chinese (2.4 million), Filipinos (1.9M), Asian Indians (1.6M), Vietnamese (1.1M), Koreans (1.1M), and Japanese (0.8M). Other sizable groups are Cambodians (172,000), Hmong (169,000), Laotians (169,000), Pakistanis (153,000), and Thais (112,000). The Asian American population is heavily urbanized, with nearly three-quarters of Asian Americans living in metropolitan areas with population greater than 2.5 million. Asian Americans are concentrated in the largest U.S. cities, with 40% of all Asian Americans living in the metropolitan areas around Los Angeles, San Francisco, and New York City. Half of all Asian Americans (5.4M) live in Hawaii or the West Coast, mostly in California (4.2M). However, recently, strong populations of Asians have emerged elsewhere, with high Asian populations in the New York City, Washington, D.C./Baltimore, Chicago, Seattle, and Houston metropolitan areas.

Asian American history

Early history

A large amount of Chinese and Japanese began immigrating to the U.S. in the mid 19th century. Many of these immigrants worked as laborers on the transcontinental railroad. A surge in Asian immigration in the late 19th century gave rise to a fear from some, referred to as the "yellow peril." History is discussed in more detail in the following categories:

Immigration trends

Immigration trends of recent decades have dramatically altered the statistical composition and popular understanding of who is an Asian American. The dramatic transformation of Asian America, and of America itself, is largely credited to the removal of over 75 years of discriminatory immigration laws that banned Chinese, then subsequent Asian ethnic groups, from becoming immigrants or citizens of the United States.

Asian Americans have largely been perceived as members of the East Asian ethnic groups, specifically Chinese and Japanese, the two largest ethnic groups before 1965, as well as Filipinos who became colonial subjects of the US in 1898 due to the Spanish-American War and subsequent Philippine-American War. The Asian communities in the United States now include many Koreans, Filipinos of different classes and educational achievements, and Southeast Asians. Asian America includes people from South Asia — India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. The term includes Thai, Burmese, Lao, Cambodians, Hmong, Tibetans, Nepalese, and other Southeast Asian immigrants to the US, and sometimes also Pacific Islanders such as Samoans, Tongans, Fijians, Guamanians (Chamorros). Ethnically native Hawaiians are also sometimes included.

This rapid change in Asian American demographics occurred after enactment of the 1965 immigration reforms. This act replaced exclusionary immigration rules of the Chinese Exclusion Act and its successors, such as the Reed-Johnson Act or 1924 immigration act, which effectively excluded "undesirable" immigrants, including Asians. The 1965 rules set across-the-board immigration quotas for each country, opening the borders to immigration from Asia for the first time in nearly half a century.

Two other influences, however, have been equally worthy of attention. First, in the wake of World War II, immigration preferences favored family reunification. This may have helped attract highly skilled workers to meet American workforce deficiencies. Secondly, the end of the Korean War and Vietnam War or so-called "Secret Wars" in Southeast Asia brought a new wave of Asian American immigration as people from Korea, Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia arrived. Some of the new immigrants, as in the case of the Korean War, were war brides, who were soon joined by their families. Others, like the Southeast Asians, were either highly skilled and educated or part of subsequent waves of refugees seeking asylum.

Japanese Americans and South Asians are emblematic of the recent trends. Japanese Americans are widely recognized as an Asian American sub-group. In 1970, there were nearly 600,000 Japanese Americans, making it the largest sub-group. Today, Japanese Americans are the sixth-largest group, with relatively low rates of births and immigration. In 2000, there were between 800,000 and 1.2 million Japanese Americans (depending on whether multi-ethnic responses are included). In 1990 there were slightly fewer South Asian in the US than Japanese Americans. By 2000, Indian Americans nearly doubled in population to become the third largest group. Some factors contributing to the growth of South Asians are higher family sizes, higher use of family-reunification visas, and higher numbers of technically skilled workers entering on H-1 and H-1b visas. High rates of immigration from across Asia will make Asian America increasingly representative of the continent itself.

As of the later half of the twentieth century, Asian Americans have generally been educationally and financially successful. According to 2000 U.S. Census data, the average Asian American household earns a higher income than other U.S. ethnic groups and achieves higher levels of educational attainment. However, Asian Americans who tend to have larger families, earn per capita less than white populations. The proportion of Asian Americans at many selective educational institutions far exceeds the 3% national population rate. For example, several University of California campuses and New York City's Stuyvesant High School count over 50% of their student population as Asian American, J.P. Stevens High School in Edison, NJ where about 50% of the students are Asian Americans, Palisades Park High School in Palisades Park, NJ where over 50% of its students are Asian American, and Fort Lee High School in Fort Lee, NJ where about 50% of its students are Asian American.

However, exceptions to this success story are often found, usually among first-generation immigrants, who sometimes lack documentation, cannot speak English, or have a hard time assimilating into American culture in general. Asian Americans have among the largest discrepencies among poor and wealthy families or any racial group. Such conditions are common among Asians emigrating to the United States from southeast Asian countries such as Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia, among others; many of these immigrants can be considered refugees from Communist and totalitarian states and as such, often do not have the educational or socioeconomic advantages of other Asian Americans. Many immigrants are often forced to work in minimum wage or below-minimum wage jobs, including in menial sweatshop or restaurant labor, because they fear that mainstream employers will not hire them or, if they have entered the country illegally, will report them to the government. Due to popular labeling of Asian Americans as model minorities, the critical issues of poverty and low educational attainment among southeast Asian immigrants and their Asian American children do not receive the attention that such issues receive in the African American and Hispanic communities.

See also

External links

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