Christian movements

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Christian movements are theological, political, or philosophical intepretations of Christianity that are not generally represented by a specific church, sect, or denomination.



  • Christian Identity: a label applied to a wide variety of loosely-affiliated groups and churches with a racialized theology.
  • Christian Zionism: the belief that the return of the Jews to the Holy Land, and the establishment of the State of Israel, is in accordance with Biblical prophecy, and is a necessary precondition for the return of Jesus to reign on Earth.
  • Conservative Christianity: a sub-division of the Christian community that adhere to what many consider to be conservative religious values of the Christian faith.
  • Creationism: the advocation of a belief that creation according to Genesis provides an accurate description of the origin of life, the Earth, and the universe.
  • Evangelicalism: faith demonstrates all things that are implied in belief that Jesus is the savior.
  • Fundamentalist Christianity: sought to assert a minimal set of traditional Christian beliefs against the influences of Modernist Christianity; became a movement of separation from the "mainline" Protestant churches.
  • Holiness movement: A Wesleyan movement beginning in the 19th century which emphasized a personal experience of holiness, and which gave rise to Pentecostalism and the Charismatic movement.
  • Modernist Christianity or Liberal Christianity: school of Christian thought which rose as a direct challenge to more conservative traditional Christian orthodoxy.
  • Neo-orthodoxy: emphasis on the trancendence of God, the reality of sin, and an existentialist encounter with the word of God.
  • Oxford Movement: A nineteenth century movement to more closely align Anglicanism with its Roman Catholic heritage.
  • Paleo-Orthodoxy: evaluating later theology in light of the writings of the early Church.
  • Pentecostalism: the miraculous gifts of the Holy Spirit are a normal part of the "Full Gospel"
  • Restorationism: a group of religious reform movements that sought to renew the whole Christian church; the movements overlap historically but are independent and doctrinally diverse. Mormonism, Christadelphians, Jehovah's Witnesses and other distinct movements are counted among them.
  • Restoration Movement, also known as the "Stone-Campbell movement": a group of religious reform movements that sought to renew the whole Christian church "after the New Testament pattern", in contrast to divided Christendom, of Catholicism and Protestantism; a Restorationist movement that sparked the Second Great Awakening


  • Christian anarchism: the rejection of all authority and power other than God, including the Church.
  • Christian communism: is a form of religious communism centered chapter 2 and verses 44 and 45 of New Testament Bible book Acts of the Apostles.
  • Christian Democracy: is a political ideology, born at the end of the 19th century, largely as a result of the papal encyclical Rerum Novarum of Pope Leo XIII, in which the Vatican recognizes workers' misery and agrees that something should be done about it, in reaction to the rise of the socialist and trade-union movements.
  • Christian left: those who hold a strong Christian belief and share left-wing or socialist ideals.
  • Christian right: encompasses a spectrum of conservative Christian political and social movements and organizations characterized by their strong support of social values they deem traditional in the United States and other western countries.
  • Christian socialism: those on the Christian left whose politics are both Christian and socialist, broadly including Liberation theology and the doctrine of the social gospel.
  • Evangelical left: part of the Christian evangelical movement but who generally function on the left wing of that movement, either politically or theologically, or both.
  • Progressive christianity: focuses on the biblical injunctions that God's people live correctly, that they promote social justice and act to fight poverty, racism, and other forms of injustice.


  • Christian existentialism: a school of thought founded by the Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard.
  • Christian vegetarianism: the dietary practice of vegetarianism or veganism based on the idea that Jesus, the twelve apostles and the early Messianic Jewish followers of Jesus (the Ebionites) were vegetarians.
  • Peace churches: Christian churches, groups or communities promoting the philosophy of pacifism, as taught and practiced by Jesus.

See also

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