Ernest Hemingway

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Jump to: navigation, search
Ernest Hemingway, 1950
Ernest Hemingway, 1950

Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899July 2, 1961) was an American novelist and short story writer whose works, drawn from his wide range of experiences in World War I, the Spanish Civil War, and World War II, are characterized by terse minimalism and understatement; they exerted a significant influence on the development of twentieth century fiction. Hemingway's protagonists are typically stoic male individuals, often interpreted as projections of his own character, who must master "grace under pressure". Many of his works, like The Sun Also Rises, A Farewell to Arms and The Old Man and the Sea, are now considered classics in the canon of American literature.

Hemingway was part of the 1920s expatriate community in Paris, known as "The Lost Generation," a name coined and popularized by Gertrude Stein. Leading a turbulent social life, Hemingway married four times, apart from various romantic relationships he formed during his lifetime, and received much media exposure. Hemingway received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954, seven years before his death by suicide in 1961.


Early life

A baby picture, c. 1900
A baby picture, c. 1900

Hemingway was born at 8:00 A.M. on July 21, 1899 in Oak Park, Illinois, in a six-bedroom Victorian house built by his maternal grandfather, Ernest Hall, an English immigrant and Civil War veteran who lived with the family when Ernest was born. Hemingway's physician father, "Doctor Ed" Clarence Hemingway, attended to the birth of Ernest and subsequently blew a horn on his front porch, announcing to the Hemingways' neighbors that his wife had borne a baby boy.

Hemingway was the firstborn son, the second of six children to Doctor Clarence "Ed" and Grace Hemingway, a homemaker with considerable singing talent who had once aspired to a career on stage. She was trained from her youth to sing opera and earned money through giving voice and music lessons as well as recitals. His mother was also domineering and devoutly religious, mirroring the strict Protestant ethic of Oak Park, which Hemingway later said had "wide lawns and narrow minds"[1]. His mother had wanted to bear twins, and when this did not happen, she dressed young Ernest and his sister Marcelline (eighteen months his senior) in similar clothes and with similar hairstyles, maintaining the pretense of the two children being "twins." Grace Hemingway further feminized Hemingway in his youth by calling him "Ernestine"[2].

While his mother had ambitions that her son would develop an interest in music, Hemingway adopted the interests of his father—hunting and fishing in the woods and lakes of northern Michigan. Owning a house, called Windemere, on Michigan's Walloon Lake, his family would often spend summers vacationing in that state. These early experiences in close contact with nature would instill in Hemingway a lifelong passion for outdoor adventure and for living in areas of the world generally considered remote or isolated.

First writing experiences

During his years at Oak Park and River Forest High School, in addition to being active as a boxer and a football player, he excelled academically, particularly in English classes. His first experience with writing came in high school, as he served as editor for both Trapeze and Tabula, the school's newspaper and literary magazine, respectively.

When Hemingway graduated from high school, he did not pursue a college education. Instead, in 1916, when he was 17 years old, his professional writing career began. He earned a position as a cub reporter for The Kansas City Star. While he remained part of the staff at that newspaper for only about six months, throughout his lifetime he used the admonition from the Star's style guide as a foundation for his manner of writing: "Use short sentences. Use short first paragraphs. Use vigorous English. Be positive, not negative"[3].

World War I until the Spanish Civil War

A young Hemingway in his World War I uniform
A young Hemingway in his World War I uniform

Hemingway left his reporting job after only a few months, and, against his father's wishes, tried to join the United States Army to assist in the effort in World War I. He did not pass the medical examination due to poor vision. Instead, he joined the American Field Service ambulance Corps and left for Italy, then mired in the war. En route to the Italian front, he stopped in Paris, which was under constant bombardment from German artillery.

Instead of staying in the relative safety of the Hotel Florida, Hemingway tried to get as close to the combat as possible. Soon after arriving on the Italian front, he began to witness the brutalities of the war; on his first day of duty, an ammunition factory near Milan suffered an explosion. Hemingway had to pick up the human remains, mostly of women who had worked at the factory. This first and extremely cruel encounter with human death left him shaken. The soldiers he met later did not lighten the horror; for example, one of them, Eric Dorman-Smith, quoted to him a line from Part Two of Shakespeare's Henry IV: By my troth, I care not; a man can die but once; we owe god a death...and let it go which way it will, he that dies this year is quit for the next[4]. (Hemingway, for his part, would conjure this very same Shakespearean line in The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber, one of his later famous African short stories.) In another instance, a 50-year-old soldier, to whom Hemingway said, "You're troppo vecchio for this war, pop," replied, "I can die as well as any man"[5].

At the Italian front on July 8, 1918, Hemingway was wounded delivering supplies to soldiers, ending his career as an ambulance driver. The exact details of this attack are not known, but two facts are certain: Hemingway was hit by an Austrian trench mortar shell which left fragments in both of his legs, and he was subsequently awarded the Silver Medal of Military Valor (medaglia d'argento) from the Italian government. Later transferred to the Italian infantry, he was seriously injured in combat.

Agnes von Kurowsky in Venice, Italy
Agnes von Kurowsky in Venice, Italy

After this experience, Hemingway convalesced in a Milan hospital run by the American Red Cross. There he was to meet a nurse, Sister Agnes von Kurowsky of Washington, D.C., one of 18 nurses attending groups of 4 patients each. Hemingway fell in love with Kurowsky, who was more than 6 years older than him, but this first relationship did not last. After he returned to the United States, she fell in love with and married another man.

Literary aftermath of WWI

First novels and other early works

Once discharged from the Italian army, Hemingway returned to Oak Park. In 1920, he took a job in Toronto, Canada at the Toronto Star as a freelancer, staff writer, and foreign correspondent. About this time, Hemingway met Canada's young literary prodigy Morley Callaghan, who also was a cub reporter at the same paper. Callaghan, who respected Hemingway's work, showed his own stories to him and Hemingway praised it as fine work.

In 1921, Hemingway married his first wife, Hadley Richardson. The Hemingways decided to live abroad for a time, and, at the advice of Sherwood Anderson, they settled, along with Morley Callaghan and F. Scott Fitzgerald, in Paris; there Hemingway covered the Greco-Turkish War for the Star. After the 1922 publication and American banning of colleague James Joyce's Ulysses, Hemingway used Toronto-based friends to smuggle copies of the novel into the United States. Hemingway's own first book, called Three Stories and Ten Poems (1923), was published in Paris by Robert McAlmon. In the same year, during a brief return to Toronto, Hemingway's first son, John, was born. Busy supporting a family, he became bored with the Toronto Star and resigned on January 1, 1924.

Gertrude Stein (pictured here in a portrait by Pablo Picasso) was a long-time mentor of Hemingway and served as an important influence on his style and literary development.
Gertrude Stein (pictured here in a portrait by Pablo Picasso) was a long-time mentor of Hemingway and served as an important influence on his style and literary development.

Hemingway's American debut in literature is often associated with the publication of the short story collection In Our Time (1925). The vignettes that now constitute the interchapters of the American version were initially published in Europe as in our time (1924). This work was important for Hemingway, reaffirming to him that his minimalist style could be accepted by the literary community. "The Big Two-Hearted River" is the collection's best-known story.

After Hemingway's return to Paris, Anderson gave him a letter of introduction to Gertrude Stein. She became his mentor and introduced Hemingway to the "Parisian Modern Movement" then ongoing in Montparnasse Quarter; this was the beginnings of the American expatriate circle that became known as the Lost Generation, a term coined by Stein. The group often frequented Sylvia Beach's bookshop, Shakespeare & Co., at 18 Rue de l'Odéon. Hemingway's other influential mentor was Ezra Pound[6], the founder of imagism. Hemingway later said in reminiscence of this eclectic group: Ezra was right half the time, and when he was wrong, he was so wrong you were never in any doubt about it. Gertrude was always right[7].

Hemingway's favorite restaurant in Montparnasse was La Closerie des Lilas. It was here, in just over 6 weeks, that he wrote his second novel, The Sun Also Rises (1926). The novel, semi-autobiographical in that it follows a group of expatriate Americans in Europe, was successful and was met with much critical acclaim. While Hemingway had initially claimed that the novel was an obsolete form of literature, he was apparently inspired to write one after reading Fitzgerald's manuscript for The Great Gatsby.

Hemingway divorced Hadley Richardson and married Pauline Pfeiffer, a devout Roman Catholic from Piggott, Arkansas, in 1927. That year saw the publication of Men Without Women, a collection of short stories, containing "The Killers," one of Hemingway's best-known and most-anthologized stories.

La Closerie des Lilas, seen here in 1909, was Hemingway's favorite restaurant in the Montparnasse district of Paris.
La Closerie des Lilas, seen here in 1909, was Hemingway's favorite restaurant in the Montparnasse district of Paris.

In 1928, Hemingway's father, Clarence, troubled with diabetes and financial instabilities, committed suicide using an old Civil War pistol. This suicide was a great pain to Hemingway; he immediately traveled to Oak Park to arrange the funeral. Another suicide was of Harry Crosby, founder of the Black Sun Press and friend of Hemingway from his days in Paris.

Also in 1928 Hemingway's second son, Patrick, was born in Kansas City. It was a Caesarean birth after difficult labor, details that were incorporated into the concluding scene of his novel.

The last important work associated with the period following World War I is Hemingway's second novel, A Farewell to Arms (1929). It details the romance between Frederic Henry, an American soldier, and Catherine Barkley, a British nurse. The novel is heavily autobiographical in nature: the plot is directly inspired by his experience with Sister von Kurowsky in Milan; the intense labor pains of his second wife, Pauline, in the birth of Hemingway's son Patrick inspired Catherine's labor in the novel; the real-life Kitty Cannell inspired the fictional Helen Ferguson; the priest was based on Don Giuseppe Bianchi, the priest of the 69th and 70th regiments of the Brigata Ancona. While the inspiration of the character Rinaldi is mysterious, curiously, he had already appeared in In Our Time.

A Farewell to Arms was published at a time when many other World War I books were prominent, including Frederic Manning's Her Privates We, Erich Maria Remarque's All Quiet on the Western Front, Richard Aldington's Death of a Hero, and Robert Graves' Goodbye to All That. A Farewell to Arms's success rendered Hemingway essentially independent financially.

The (First) Forty Nine Stories

Several of Hemingway's most famous short stories were written in the period following the war; in 1938—along with his only full-length play, entitled The Fifth Column—49 such stories were published in the collection The Fifth Column and the First Forty-Nine Stories. Hemingway's intention was, as he openly stated in his own foreword to the collection, to write more. Many of the stories that make up this collection can be found in other abridged collections, including In Our Time, Men Without Women, Winner Take Nothing, and The Snows of Kilimanjaro.

Some of the collection's important stories include: Old Man at the Bridge, On The Quai at Smyrna, Hills Like White Elephants, One Reader Writes, The Killers and (perhaps most famously) A Clean, Well-Lighted Place. While these stories are rather short, the book also includes much longer stories. Among these the most famous are The Snows of Kilimanjaro and The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber.

Only one other story collection by Hemingway appeared during his lifetime, entitled Four Stories Of The Spanish Civil War; "The Denunciation" is the most notable story therein. The Nick Adams Stories appeared posthumously in 1972. What is now considered the definitive compilation of all of Hemingway's short stories is published as The Complete Short Stories Of Ernest Hemingway, first compiled and published in 1987.

Early critical interplay

Hemingway's early works sold well and were generally received favorably by critics. This success elicited some crude and pretentious behavior from Hemingway, even in these formative years of his career. For example, he began to tell F. Scott Fitzgerald how to write; he also claimed that the English novelist Ford Madox Ford was sexually impotent. Hemingway in turn was the subject of much criticism. The journal Bookman attacked him as a dirty writer. According to Fitzgerald, McAlmon, the publisher of his first non-commercial book, labeled Hemingway "a fag and a wife-beater"[8] and claimed that Pauline was a lesbian. Gertrude Stein criticized him in her book The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas, suggesting that he had derived his prose style from her own and from Sherwood Anderson's[9].

Max Eastman disparaged Hemingway harshly, asking him to "come out from behind that false hair on the chest." Eastman would go on to write an essay entitled Bull in the Afternoon, a satire of Hemingway's Death in the Afternoon. Another facet of Eastman's criticism consisted in the suggestion that Hemingway ought to give up his lonely, tight-lipped stoicism and write about contemporary social affairs. Hemingway did so for at least a short time; his article Who Murdered the Vets? for New Masses, a leftist magazine, and To Have and Have Not displayed a certain heightened social awareness.

For Whom the Bell Tolls

Francisco Franco won the Spanish Civil War in the spring of 1939. Hemingway had lost an adopted homeland to Franco's fascist nationalists, and would later lose his beloved Key West, Florida home due to his 1940 divorce. A few weeks after the divorce Hemingway married his third wife, Martha Gellhorn. His novel For Whom The Bell Tolls was published in 1940; the long work, which takes place during the Spanish Civil War, based on real events (The Spanish Civil War Hugh Thomas) tells of an American man named "Robert Jordan" fighting with Spanish guerrillas on the side of the Republicans. It is one of Hemingway's most notable literary accomplishments.

Key West

Following the advice of John Dos Passos, Hemingway moved to Key West, Florida where he established his first American home. From his old stone house—a wedding present from Pauline's uncle—Hemingway fished in the Dry Tortugas waters, went to the famous bar Sloppy Joe's, and traveled occasionally to Spain, gathering material for Death in the Afternoon and Winner Take Nothing.

Ernest Hemingway's writing desk in his Key West home
Ernest Hemingway's writing desk in his Key West home

Death In The Afternoon a book about bullfighting, was published in 1932. Hemingway had become a bullfighting aficionado after seeing the Pamplona fiesta of 1925, fictionalized in The Sun Also Rises. In Death in the Afternoon, Hemingway extensively discussed the metaphysics of bullfighting: the ritualized, almost religious practice. In his writings on Spain he was influenced by the Spanish master Pío Baroja (when Hemingway won the Nobel Prize, he traveled to see Baroja, then on his death bed, specifically to tell him that he thought Baroja deserved the prize more than him).

A safari in the fall of 1932 led him to Mombasa, Nairobi, and Machakos in the Mua Hills. In Spain reporting on the Spanish Civil War, Hemingway broke friendship with John Dos Passos because Dos Passos kept reporting despite warning on the atrocities, not only of the Fascists who Hemingway disliked, but also of the Republicans who Hemingway favored ("The Breaking Point: Hemingway, Dos Passos, and the Murder of Jose Robles" by Stephen Koch, published 2005ISBN: 1582432805) and The Spanish Civil War (1961) by Hugh Thomas). The story "The Denunciation" [10] seems autobiographical, thus suggesting that the author might have been an informant for the Republic as well as weapons instructor (The Spanish Civil War (1961) by Hugh Thomas). 1935 saw the publication of Green Hills of Africa, an account of his African safari. The Snows of Kilimanjaro and The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber were the fictionalized results of his African experiences.

Some health problems characterized this period of Hemingway's life: an anthrax infection, a cut eyeball, a gash in his forehead, grippe, toothache, hemorrhoids; kidney trouble from fishing in Spain, torn groin muscle, finger gashed to the bone in an accident with a punching ball, lacerations (to arms, legs, and face) from a ride on a runaway horse through a deep Wyoming forest, and a broken arm from a car accident.

World War II and its aftermath

The United States entered World War II on December 8, 1941, and for the first time in his life, Hemingway is known to have taken an active part in a war.

Aboard the Pilar, now a Q-Ship, Hemingway's crew said charged with sinking Nazi submarines threatening the shipping of the coasts of Cuba and the United States actually there were far more professional and successful activities carried out by the US and Cuban navies (see Cuban espionage and related extraterritorial activity revised). As the FBI took over Caribbean counter-espionage, he went to Europe, first as war correspondent for Collier's magazine.

Hemingway took part in the D-Day invasion of France as a correspondent on a landing craft. Later, at Villedieu-les-Poêles, France, he threw three grenades into a cellar where SS officers were hiding. It was the first time he had killed a man. Seemingly encouraged, he declared he would be an unofficial intelligence unit. Later, he acted as an unofficial liaison officer at Château de Rambouillet, and afterwards, formed his own partisan group which took part in the liberation of Paris, France. Some have argued that Hemingway was trying to emulate the characters he had created in his fiction.

After the war, Hemingway started work on The Garden of Eden, which was never finished and would be published posthumously in much abridged form in 1986. At one stage he planned a major trilogy which was to be comprised of "The Sea When Young", "The Sea When Absent" and "The Sea in Being" (the latter eventually published in 1953 as The Old Man and the Sea). There was also a "Sea-Chase" story; three of these pieces were edited and stuck together as the posthumously published novel Islands in the Stream (1970).

Hemingway's first novel after For Whom the Bell Tolls was Across the River and Into the Trees (1950), set in World War II Venice. He derived the title from the last words of General Stonewall Jackson. In Across the River and Into the Trees, his now-divorced third wife appeared as the third wife of the protagonist, Adriana Ivancich, as in his lover Renata (which means "Reborn" in Latin). The novel received poor reviews, many of which accused Hemingway of bad taste, stylistic ineptitude and sentimentality. Perhaps the last charge was most true, and fit an emerging pattern: Hemingway was growing old.

Later years

One section of the above-mentioned sea trilogy was published as The Old Man and the Sea in 1952. That novella's enormous success satisfied and fulfilled Hemingway, probably for the last time in his life. It earned him both the Pulitzer Prize in 1953 and the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954, and restored his international reputation.

Then, his legendary bad luck struck once again; on a safari he was in two successive plane crashes. Hemingway's injuries were serious; he sprained his right shoulder, arm, and left leg, had a grave concussion, temporarily lost vision in his left eye and hearing in his left ear, had paralysis of the sphincter, a crushed vertebra, ruptured liver, spleen and kidney, and first degree burns on his face, arms, and leg.

As if this were not enough, he was badly injured one month later in a bushfire accident which left him with second degree burns on his legs, front torso, lips, left hand and right forearm. The pain left him in prolonged anguish, and he was unable to travel to Stockholm to accept his Nobel Prize.

A glimmer of hope came with the discovery of some of his old manuscripts from 1928 in the Ritz cellars, which were transformed into A Moveable Feast. Although some of his energy seemed to be restored, severe drinking problems kept him down. His blood pressure and cholesterol count were perilously high, he suffered from aortal inflammation, and his depression, aggravated by alcoholism, was worsening.

He also lost his Finca Vigía, his estate outside Havana, Cuba that he had owned for over twenty years, and was forced to "exile" to Ketchum, Idaho, when the situation in Cuba began to escalate. The famous photograph of Fidel Castro and Hemingway, nominally related to a fishing competition which Castro won, is believed to document a conversation in which Hemingway begged for the return of his estate and Castro ignored him.

His very last years, 1960 and 1961, were marked by severe paranoia. He feared FBI agents would be after him if Cuba turned to the Russians, that the "Feds" (Burgess (9.), p. ??) would be checking his bank account, and that they wanted to arrest him for gross immorality and carrying alcohol. The FBI was in fact surveying Hemingway due to his activities in Cuba.

In May of 1960, Ernest Hemingway was not able to get his novel The Dangerous Summer to the publishers. Therefore, he had his wife, Mary Welsh Hemingway summon his friend, LIFE Magazine Bureau Head, Will Lang Jr. to leave Paris and come to Spain. Hemingway persuaded Will Lang Jr. to let him print the manuscript, along with a picture layout before it came out in hardcover. Although not a word of it was on paper, Ernest agreed to the proposal. The first part of story appeared in LIFE Magazine on September 5, 1960. The other installments were printed on the following issues of LIFE.

Hemingway was upset by perfectly normal photographs in his The Dangerous Summer article. He was receiving treatment in Ketchum, Idaho for high blood pressure and liver problems—and also electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for depression and his continued paranoia.

Hemingway was friendly with the World War II British General Eric Dorman-Smith, who was a godfather to one of his children.


Hemingway attempted suicide in the spring of 1961, and received ECT treatment again, but this was unable to prevent his suicide on July 2, 1961—in the morning. He died as a result of a self-inflicted shotgun blast to the head in Ketchum, Idaho, at the age of 61. Prior to his suicide, Hemingway is known to have blamed his loss of self on ECT.

An interesting footnote to add to this topic is that many members of Hemingway's immediate family also committed suicide, including his father, Clarence Hemingway, and his siblings Ursula and Leicester. It is believed that some members of Hemingway's paternal line had a genetic condition or hereditary disease known as haemochromatosis, in which an excess of iron concentration in the blood causes damage to the pancreas and depression or instability in the cerebrum. Hemingway's physician father is known to have developed bronze diabetes due to this condition in the years prior to his suicide at age fifty-nine.

Hemingway is said to have donated his entire Cuban estate to Fidel Castro. However, considering that Castro confiscated all US property, it is widely believed that Castro took La Vigia estate, and that the famous photograph of Castro and Hemingway relates to an attempt of Hemingway to recover his property. Regardless, Hemingway did not stay on the Island and never returned to Cuba. He is interred in the Ketchum Cemetery in Ketchum, Idaho. The local public elementary school there is named in his honor. In 1996, his granddaughter, actress Margaux Hemingway, would take her own life; she is interred in the same cemetery.

Posthumous publications

Hemingway was still writing new works up to the time of his death in 1961. All of these unfinished works which were Hemingway's sole creation have been published posthumously; they are Islands in the Stream, The Dangerous Summer, and The Garden of Eden[11]. In a note forwarding "Islands in the Stream" Mary Hemingway indicated that she worked with Charles Scribner, Jr. on "preparing this book for publication from Ernest's original manuscript." In that note she stated that "beyond the routine chores of correcting spelling and punctuation, we made some cuts in the manuscript, I feeling that Ernest would surely have made them himself. The book is all Ernest's. We have added nothing to it." Controversy has surrounded the publication of these works, insofar as it has been suggested that it is not necessarily within the jurisdiction of Hemingway's relatives or publishers to determine whether these works should be made available to the public. For example, scholars often disapprovingly note that the version of The Garden of Eden published by Charles Scribner's Sons in 1986, though in no way a revision of Hemingway's original words, nonetheless does not include some two-thirds of the original manuscript[12]. In 1999, another novel entitled True at First Light appeared under the name of Ernest Hemingway, though it was heavily edited by his son Patrick Hemingway.

The Associated Press reported in February 2005 on the progress of what is purported to be the final work to be posthumously published that was written by Hemingway. Entitled Under Kilimanjaro, the novel is a fictional account of Hemingway's final African safari in 19531954. He spent several months in Kenya with his fourth wife, Mary, before his near-fatal plane crashes took place[13]. Anticipation of the novel, whose manuscript was completed in 1956, adumbrates perhaps an unprecedentedly large critical battle over whether it is proper to publish the work (many sources mention that a new, light side of Hemingway will be seen as opposed to his canonical, macho image[14]), even as editors Robert W. Lewis of University of North Dakota and Robert E. Fleming of University of New Mexico have pushed it through to publication; the novel was published on September 15 2005.

Also published after Hemingway's death were several collections of his work as a journalist. These collections contain his columns and articles for Esquire Magazine, The North American Newspaper Alliance, and the Toronto Star; they include Byline: Ernest Hemingway edited by William White, and Hemingway: The Wild Years edied by Gene Z. Hanrahan.

Influence and legacy

The influence of Hemingway's writings on American literature was considerable and continues to exist today. Indeed, the influence of Hemingway's style was so widespread that it may be glimpsed in most contemporary fiction, as writers draw inspiration either from Hemingway himself or indirectly through writers who more consciously emulated Hemingway's style. In his own time, Hemingway affected writers within his modernist literary circle. James Joyce called "A Clean, Well Lighted Place" "one of the best stories ever written". Pulp fiction and "hard boiled" crime fiction (which flourished from the 1920s to the 1950s) often owed a strong debt to Hemingway.

Hemingway's terse prose style is known to have inspired Bret Easton Ellis, Chuck Palahniuk, Douglas Coupland and many Generation X writers. Hemingway's style also influenced Jack Kerouac and other Beat Generation writers. J.D. Salinger is said to have wanted to be a great American short story writer in the same vein as Hemingway.

In Latin American literature, Hemingway's impact can perhaps best be seen in the work of Gabriel García Márquez, who, for instance, often uses the sea as a central image in his fiction.

Science fiction novelist Joe Haldeman won the Hugo Award and the Nebula Award for his novella, The Hemingway Hoax, a story which explored the effect that Hemingway's lost stories might have had upon 20th century history.

Awards and honors

During his lifetime Hemingway was awarded with:




Short story collections



  1. ^  From Childhood at The Hemingway Resource Center.
  2. ^  Three different sources disagree on how long this habit of his mother's lasted. A note from a PBS lecture series states that it lasted for two years; Grauer claims she stopped when he was 6; Juan's analysis suggests that her treatment continued "well into his teens;" he also claims that at times she would attempt to liken Hemingway to his older sister Marcelline.
  3. ^  A large list of such anecdotes are compiled at the centennial commemoration page of the Kansas City Star.
  4. ^  Burgess, 1978, p. 24.
  5. ^  Ibid.
  6. ^  On August 10, 1943, Hemingway typed a letter to Archibald MacLeish discussing Pound's mental health and other literary matters.
  7. ^  In a conversation with John Peale Bishop, quoted in Hemingway, Cowley, ed, 1944, p. xiii.
  8. ^  Burgess, 1978, p. 57.
  9. ^  Ibid.
  10. ^  Information about these posthumous Hemingway works was taken from Charles Scribner, Jr.'s 1987 Preface to The Garden of Eden.
  11. ^  BookRags makes this quantitative note; it also reveals some more information about the publication of The Garden of Eden and offers some discussion of thematic content.
  12. ^  The Kent State University Press is the official source for this new novel's release.
  13. ^  See the University of North Dakota feature of editor Robert W. Lewis, for example.


  • Berridge, H.R. (1990) Barron's Book Notes on Ernest Hemingway's A Farewell to Arms, Stuttgart: Klett. ISBN 0812034120
  • Baker, Carlos (1972) Hemingway: The Writer as Artist, Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691013055
  • Baker, Carlos, ed (1962) Ernest Hemingway: Critiques of Four Major Novels, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN 0684411571
  • "Biography". The Hemingway Resource Center. URL accessed on April 12, 2005.
  • Burgess, Anthony (1978). Ernest Hemingway and His World. Norwich: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0684185040.
  • Hemingway, Ernest, Carlos Baker, ed (1981) Selected Letters 1917-1961, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN 0743246896
  • Hemingway, Ernest, Malcolm Cowley, ed (1944) Hemingway (The Viking Portable Library), New York: The Viking Press. ASIN B0007DNS9K
  • Koch, Stephen (2005) The Breaking Point: Hemingway, Dos Passos, and the Murder of Jose Robles, New York: Counterpoint Press. ISBN: 1582432805
  • Lynn, Kenneth Schuyler (1995) Hemingway, Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674387325
  • Young, Philip (1952) Ernest Hemingway, New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston. ISBN 0816601917

Further reading

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:

Personal tools