Federal republic

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The Federal Republic of Germany and its sixteen Bundesländer
The Federal Republic of Germany and its sixteen Bundesländer

A federal republic is a state which is both a federation and a republic. A federation is a state composed of a number of self-governing regions (often themselves referred to as 'states') united by a central, federal government. In a federation, unlike in a unitary state, the self-governing status of autonomous regions is constitutionally entrenched and cannot be revoked by an unilateral decision of the central government. Usage of the term republic is inconsistent but, as a minimum, it means a state that does not have a monarch as head of state.

Three states explicitly describe themselves as federal republics. These are the Federal Republic of Germany, the Federal Republic of Nigeria, and the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. A close variant is the term federative republic, which appears in the full official title of Brazil. Not every federation is a republic; for example Canada, Australia, and Malaysia are each governed under a form of federal constitutional monarchy.


List of federal republics


Federation Style Subdivisions Head of state
Argentina Republic Provinces of Argentina President of Argentina
Austria Republic States of Austria Federal President of Austria
Bosnia and Herzegovina Divisions of Bosnia and Herzegovina Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Brazil Federative Republic States of Brazil President of Brazil
Comoros Union President of Comoros
Ethiopia F.D.R. Regions of Ethiopia President of Ethiopia
Germany Federal Republic States of Germany Federal President of Germany
India Republic States of India President of India
Pakistan Republic Provinces of Pakistan President of Pakistan
Mexico Federal Republic States of Mexico President of Mexico
FS Micronesia Federated States President of FS Micronesia
Nigeria Federal Republic States of Nigeria President of Nigeria
Russia Federation Subjects of Russia President of Russia
Serbia and Montenegro Divisions of Serbia and Montenegro President of Serbia and Montenegro
Switzerland Confederation Cantons of Switzerland Swiss Federal Council
United States United States Divisions of the United States President of the United States
Venezuela Bolivarian Republic States of Venezuela President of Venezuela


See also

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