Lance Armstrong

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For other uses, see Lance Armstrong (disambiguation).
Armstrong on the cover of Sports Illustrated shortly before the 2005 Tour de France.
Armstrong on the cover of Sports Illustrated shortly before the 2005 Tour de France.

Lance Armstrong (born September 18, 1971 in Plano, Texas) is a retired American professional road racing cyclist. He is most famous for recovering from testicular cancer to subsequently win the Tour de France a record seven consecutive times—1999 to 2005. His success prompted some to nickname the event the "Tour de Lance."

In 2002, Sports Illustrated magazine named him their Sportsman of the Year. He was also named Associated Press Male Athlete of the Year for 2002, 2003 and 2004, received ESPN's ESPY Award for Best Male Athlete in 2003, 2004, and 2005, and won the BBC Sports Personality of the Year Overseas Personality Award in 2003. Armstrong retired from racing at the end of the 2005 Tour de France.



Early career

He began his sporting career as a triathlete, competing in adult competitions from the age of 18. It soon became clear that his greatest talent was as a bicycle racer. At 17, he received an invitation to train with the Junior National Cycling Team. Plano Independent School District's school board said that the six-week leave to train taken during the second semester of his senior year would bar him from graduating. Armstrong withdrew from his high school, Plano East Senior High, with his mother's blessing and went to train with the team. He graduated from another high school in Dallas the following spring and still harbors resentment toward Plano because of this and prefers his adopted home of Austin, Texas.

After competing as a cycling amateur winning the US amateur championship in 1991 and finishing 14th in the 1992 Olympics road race, Armstrong turned professional in 1992. He finished last in his first professional cycle race, the Clasica San Sebastian. The following year he scored his first major victory as he rode solo to win the World Road Championships in Oslo, Norway. His victory was so dominant (he had time to blow kisses to his mother in the home straight) that he was invited to an audience with the King of Norway, which he initially turned down after finding his mother was not included in the invitation. Minutes later, the King invited both. Earlier that year, Armstrong had also won the 8th stage of the 1993 Tour de France

His successes continued with Team Motorola, with whom he won stages in the 1993 and 1995 Tours de France and several classic one-day events. Also in 1995, he won the premier U.S. cycling event, the Tour DuPont, having placed second in 1994. He won the Tour DuPont again in 1996, and was ranked number one cyclist in the world. Later in 1996, however, he abandoned the Tour de France and had a disappointing Olympic Games. These early disappointments spurred him on to the great things he has achieved post-cancer, and he admits that if had he given in on the devilishly difficult Clasica San Sebastian in which he had previously finished last, he could have retired from the sport.


Armstrong speaking at the NIH.
Armstrong speaking at the NIH.

On October 2, 1996, Armstrong was diagnosed with testicular cancer that had metastasized, spreading to his lungs and brain. His doctors told him that he had about a 50 percent chance of survival. After his recovery, one of his doctors told him that his actual odds of survival had been considerably smaller (one even went as far as to say three percent), and that he had been given the estimate primarily to give him hope. The date of October 2 was eventually commemorated by Armstrong and Nike, through the "10//2" line of merchandise. One dollar from the sale of each piece of "10//2" merchandise is donated to the Lance Armstrong Foundation, which was founded in 1997. Armstrong managed to recover after surgery to remove his right testicle and two brain lesions, and a course of chemotherapy, performed at Indiana University School of Medicine. The standard chemotherapy for his cancer would have meant the end of his cycling career, because a known side effect was a dramatic reduction in lung function; he opted for a more severe treatment that was less likely to result in lung damage. While in remission he resumed training, but his contract had been canceled by his Cofidis team. He was eventually signed by the newly formed United States Postal Service Pro Cycling Team, and by 1998, he was able to make his successful return in the cycling world marked by his fourth place overall finish in the Vuelta a España.

Tour de France

Armstrong's true comeback came in 1999, when he won his first Tour de France. His final lead times over his closest competitor have been over six minutes every year except for 2003 and 2005. In 2003, he finished 1:01 ahead of Jan Ullrich, following an unusual set of circumstances including a stomach illness at the outset of the race, and in 2005, he finished 4:40 ahead of Ivan Basso. In addition to his 7 overall wins, he has won 22 individual stages (1993-1, 1995-1, 1999-4, 2000-1, 2001-4, 2002-4, 2003-1, 2004-5, 2005-1). He has won 11 time trials in the Tour de France; his team has won the team time trial three times (2003–2005).

Armstrong riding in the prologue to the Tour de France, 2004.
Armstrong riding in the prologue to the Tour de France, 2004.

In his 2004 Tour victory, Armstrong won a personal-best: five stages, plus the team time trial (TTT) with his U.S. Postal Service "Blue Train". He contends that he let his friend Ivan Basso win Stage 12 at the finish line as his way of offering support for Basso's mother's struggle with cancer, though video footage appears to show Armstrong being beaten fairly. He outsprinted Basso to take the next stage, and followed that up by becoming the first man since Gino Bartali in 1948 to win three consecutive mountain stages—15, 16, and 17. For the first time Armstrong also found himself unable to ride away from his rivals in the mountains (except for the individual time trial in stage 16 up L'Alpe d'Huez when he started two minutes behind Basso and passed him on the way up). He won sprint finishes from Basso in stages 13 and 15 and made up a huge gap in the last 250 meters to nip Andreas Klöden at the line in stage 17. He won the final individual time trial (ITT), stage 19, to complete his personal record of stage wins.

Armstrong's 2005 Tour victory took place on July 24. His Discovery team won the team time trial, but he won only one individual stage, the final individual time trial. He looked strong from the beginning of the tour, being beaten in the first stage by only two seconds and passing one of his major competitors, Jan Ullrich, on the road. In the Alps and the Pyrenees he answered all attacks, even when his teammates, whose role was to support him, could not keep pace. Because of wet streets in Paris on the last stage, the referees decided that the final General Classification overall time for the Tour would be taken 50 kilometers before the end, to avoid even more crashes. Armstrong crossed the finish line to cheers of the French and international public, for his seventh consecutive Tour de France win, records for total Tour wins and consecutive Tour wins.

Livestrong and the Lance Armstrong Foundation

During summer 2004, the Lance Armstrong Foundation (with initial funding from Nike), developed the Livestrong wristband. The band was part of the Wear Yellow Live Strong educational program, intended to support cancer victims and survivors and to raise awareness about cancer. The band sold in packs of 10, 100, and 1200 as part of an effort to raise $5 million for the Lance Armstrong Foundation in cooperation with Nike. Individual bands sold for only US$1 each. Yellow was chosen for its importance in professional cycling, especially as the color of famed leader's yellow jersey of the Tour de France. As of May 2005, over 50 million Livestrong wristbands have been sold. Armstrong has also lent his name to Nike's newest line of footwear, all branded with the familiar "Live Strong" yellow. Armstrong, a member of the President's Cancer Panel since 2002, said in a recent article (7/25/2005)[1] published in USA TODAY "we have the smartest people in the world" working on cures, so his (President Bush) role is to get the funds to keep that research alive.

"Funding is tough to come by these days," he says. "The biggest downside to a war in Iraq is what you could do with that money. What does a war in Iraq cost a week? A billion? Maybe a billion a day? The budget for the National Cancer Institute is four billion. That has to change. It needs to become a priority again."

Other interests

Armstrong and his ex-wife, the former Kristin Richard "Kik" (pronounced Keek), had a son, Luke, shortly after his amazing comeback victory, and twin girls Grace and Isabelle two years later, all by in vitro fertilization. They divorced in 2003 and he later entered into a relationship with singer Sheryl Crow, who supported his cycling, following the 2004 and 2005 tours by car. On September 5, 2005, Armstrong announced their engagement.

Armstrong has diversified interests outside cycling. He had a cameo role in the film Dodgeball: A True Underdog Story and has topped the bestsellers' lists with his book "It's Not About the Bike." He has also become a spokesperson for survivorship.

Reasons for success

Armstrong on the cover of Sports Illustrated after winning the 2005 Tour de France.
Armstrong on the cover of Sports Illustrated after winning the 2005 Tour de France.

Many have discussed the reasons for Armstrong's success in winning seven Tours in a row. Few would disagree that his success involved some combination of the following reasons, and probably a different mix each year.

Training methodology and preparation

Armstrong has clearly triumphed at least partly because he learned to apply the obsessive focus he developed fighting cancer to making a career of winning the Tour de France, training in Spain for months leading up to the Tour and making frequent trips to France to fully analyze and ride key parts of the upcoming Tour course.

Johan Bruyneel

Few would disagree (perhaps least of all, Armstrong himself) at how instrumental the team's sports director, Belgian ex-cyclist Johan Bruyneel, had been in all of Lance's victories. A master technician who shared Lance's obsession for detailed preparation, Bruyneel's symbiotic relationship with Armstrong makes it difficult for even them to ascertain which one influenced the other how much. Starting with Armstrong talking Bruyneel into becoming their sports director, and Bruyneel convincing Armstrong that he could win the Tour, to their almost constant radio communications during each race, the amount of support these men provided for each other through the seven victories is immeasurable.

Superior tactics

Regardless of whether the credit goes to Armstrong or Bruyneel, there is no question that the superior tactics employed by Armstrong and his team through the seven victories were virtually flawless. Focusing the efforts of all team members on a victory for Armstrong, the list of brilliant tactics employed by Armstrong and his team goes on and on. In contrast, the glaring mistakes made by his opponents, some repeated year after year, didn't hurt his ability to succeed.

Riding style

Armstrong's riding style is also distinctive. He has an extremely high anaerobic threshold and therefore can maintain a higher cadence (often 120 rpm) in a lower gear than his competitors. This style is in direct contrast to previous champions such as five-time Tour de France winner Miguel Induráin, who used a high gear and brute strength. Armstrong maintained a high speed even when going up the most daunting climbs of the Tour and, at times, even specialist climbers like Marco Pantani were unable to keep pace with him consistently.

Strongest in climbing and time trials

Unlike most gifted climbers, Armstrong also excelled in the individual time trial, and is as good as, if not better than, those physically more suited to the discipline, such as rival Jan Ullrich. In the mold of Induráin, Armstrong is not consistently aggressive during a Tour, preferring to gain a lead in the time trials or with a few well-placed mountain attacks before sitting back and letting his team defend the lead. Despite this relatively defensive strategy, Armstrong's mountain attacks were often so dominant that he put minutes on his rivals over just a few kilometers.

Rare athletic physical attributes

All top cyclists have excellent key physical attributes. Armstrong is no exception, although in one way, he may be unusually good even for an elite athlete. He is near the top but not at the top aerobically, having a VO2 Max of 83.8 mL/kg/min -- much higher than the average person (40-50) but not as high as that of some other elite cyclists, such as Miguel Indurain (88.0) or Greg LeMond (92.5). His heart is 30 percent larger than average, but an enlarged heart is common for athletes as well. Armstrong's most unusual attribute may be his low lactate levels: even with intense training, while most other racers are in the twenties, Armstrong doesn't go above a 6. Some theorize that his high pedaling cadence is designed to take advantage of this, while others -- like Jan Ullrich -- rely on their aerobic capacity more, pushing a large gear at a lower rate.

Strength of his team

Some have attributed Armstrong's success in recent years in part to his US Postal Service cycling team (now the Discovery Channel Team). Throughout his wins in the Tour de France, Lance has slowly built up the strength of his team. In his first few Tour victories, his team was not considered exceptionally strong. Yet it is evident by the wins of his team in the Team Time Trial in his last three Tour de France victories that they are now one of the most dominating teams in the Pro Tour Circuit. While the U.S. Postal Team competes in races worldwide, the riders selected to join Armstrong in the Tour de France are there specifically to help Armstrong win the yellow jersey. However, the decisive moves in which he gains very large leads over the competition almost always involve Armstrong racing far ahead of his team, and Armstrong has often fended off multiple attacks even when his team falters and he is isolated unexpectedly.

Support of broader team

Armstrong also revolutionized the support behind his well-funded teams, asking his sponsors and equipment suppliers to contribute and act as one cohesive part of the team. For example, rather than having the bike frame, handlebars, and tires of a bicycle designed and developed by separate companies miles away from each other, his teams adopted a Formula 1-style relationship with sponsors and suppliers, taking full advantage of the combined resources of several organizations working in close communication. This is now the standard in the professional cycling industry. Needless to say, Lance demanded the same level of perfection from others he sought for himself.

Allegations of drug use

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Like many top cyclists, Armstrong has long been accused of using performance-enhancing drugs. Armstrong and his supporters have often attributed accusations of doping to jealousy and sensationalist journalism by French and European newspapers such as l'Équipe and Le Monde; some American journalists even have attributed them to anti-americanism, though European newspapers have made similar accusations against European riders such as Richard Virenque and Marco Pantani.

Prior to August 2005 a variety of accusations were made but none of his accusers provided compelling evidence. An accusation was made in 1999, when Armstrong tested positive for corticoids. Armstrong explained he had used an external ointment in order to treat a rash, and produced a prescription for it. Use of the ointment broke cycling rules which state that while such external corticoids are legal, prescriptions must be shown to sports authorities in advance. However, sports authorities accepted the explanation and cleared Armstrong. Use of prescriptions unmotivated by medical needs, particularly external corticoids which cannot be distinguished from (prohibited) injected ones, has been described by some cycling insiders as a widespread trick.

On August 23, 2005, L'Équipe, the major French daily sports newspaper, reported on its front page under the headline "The Armstrong Lie" that the cyclist had taken EPO during the prologue and five stages of the 1999 Tour de France but said that it had not technically tested positive because at that point EPO tests were not administered. The newspaper then reprinted two kinds of documents: one were urine sample record forms, filled at the time when samples were taken, signed by the athlete and testing officials, and bearing sample numbers. It is unknown how the newspaper may have obtained such documents or whether they are authentic. The other were results from the comparison of 3 testing methods (two older and one newer ones) on many samples from the 1999 Tour, undertaken by the LNDD (French National Doping Detection Laboratory, a French public laboratory specialized in doping techniques) on numbered samples. By comparing numbers on the two kinds of documents, l'Équipe concluded that 6 samples of Armstrong's tested positive for EPO on all three methods.

Armstrong's web site commented - "Yet again, a European newspaper has reported that I have tested positive for performance enhancing drugs. Tomorrow’s L’Equipe, a French sports daily, is reporting that my 1999 samples were positive. Unfortunately, the witch hunt continues and tomorrow’s article is nothing short of tabloid journalism. The paper even admits in its own article that the science in question here is faulty and that I have no way to defend myself. They state: 'There will therefore be no counter-exam nor regulatory prosecutions, in a strict sense, since defendant’s rights cannot be respected.' I will simply restate what I have said many times: I have never taken performance enhancing drugs."

The director of the official French anti-doping test laboratory at Châtenay-Malabry, Jacques de Ceaurriz [2] was quoted as saying he had "no doubt about the validity of our results." [3] He said that while being kept for long periods can cause EPO proteins to deteriorate, this would possibly result in negative tests for doped athletes, but not false positives. It should be pointed out that technically this statement is false. EPO is naturally produced in the body. It is present at low levels in normal human urine, and natural levels in a human doing high-altitude training (a known "trick" of Mr. Armstrong) could be unusually high. Therefore, false positives can be obtained by setting the sensitivity threshold too low. This is especially true if the number of control samples (for calibration purposes) is limited, as is the case with the 1999 urine samples. These calibration issues are a reason EPO wasn't officially tested for earlier. Incidentally, de Ceaurriz stated that his laboratory worked on numbered anonymous samples, and was unaware when he sent his results to WADA/AMA that some of the results concerned Lance Armstrong.

In addition to these accusations, and in response to them, Armstrong has also received open backing from US Cycling [4], individual cycling officials [5], from former Tour winners Eddy Merckx and Miguel Indurain [6], and other public figures.

Supporters argue numerous irregularities in the doping claim: "' Wada (World Anti-Doping Agency) and the US Anti-Doping Agency, they've all defined a process for collecting samples, managing samples, testing the samples, identifying the people who are involved,' said Johnson. ' They have certain rights in the process. None of that has been followed in this case.' Officials from cycling's ruling body (UCI), Wada, the French sports ministry and the Tour de France all agree normal anti-doping proceedings have not been followed. ' This isn't a 'doping positive. This is just a publication in a French tabloid newspaper. That's our perspective,'" added Johnson.'"--BBC

These allegations are still under examination by a number of news and anti-doping organizations.

UCI statement

On September 9, after a period of investigation, the UCI finally released a strongly-worded official statement condemning the WADA, the French laboratory in question, and the paper L'Equipe, for having failed to provide any official communication, and having failed to provide any data, evidence, or background on the allegations. The UCI stated that it was still "awaiting plausible answers" to its requests to WADA and the laboratory, but also indicated "We deplore the fact that the long-established and entrenched confidentiality principle could be violated in such a flagrant way without any respect for fair play and the rider's privacy." [7]

The accusers themselves, in particular the World Anti-Doping Agency, might face an investigation into their own practices, in connection to their allegations against Armstrong. The UCI stated "We have substantial concerns about the impact of this matter on the integrity of the overall drug testing regime of the Olympic movement, and in particular the questions it raises over the trustworthiness of some of the sports and political authorities active in the anti-doping fight."

On October 5, the UCI announced the appointment of an independent expert to investigate the leaking of doping allegations against Armstrong: "French sports newspaper L'Equipe claims that samples given by the American icon on the 1999 Tour later tested positive. Armstrong has denied the allegations. The International Cycling Union (UCI) has now appointed Dutch lawyer and doping specialist Emile Vrijman to probe how the details were released. The UCI said it 'expects all relevant parties to fully co-operate'. Vrijman is a former director of the National Anti-Doping Agency in the Netherlands (NeCeDo)." [8]


Lance Armstrong met his first wife Kristin in June 1997 and were married in May 1998. They had three children: Luke, born in October 1999, and twins Isabelle and Grace, who were born in November 2001. The couple filed for divorce in September 2003. Kristin Armstrong cited several events related to her husband's celebrity and cancer comeback had strained the marriage. He began dating singer Sheryl Crow sometime in the autumn of 2003, and they took their relationship public in January of 2004. The couple announced their engagement in September 2005.


Jon Stewart on The Daily Show making light of Armstrong's retirement.
Jon Stewart on The Daily Show making light of Armstrong's retirement.

Immediately after winning his sixth Tour de France, rumors began circulating about Armstrong's future, with some speculating that he would like to spend more time with his family, as well as fiancée Sheryl Crow.

On April 18, 2005, these rumors were confirmed as Armstrong held a press conference to announce that he would retire from professional cycling after the 2005 Tour de France. At 5:29 p.m. CET on July 24, 2005, after winning his seventh Tour de France, Lance Armstrong retired after a storied 14-year career.

He cited wanting to spend more time with his children as a major reason for retirement.


In an article in the Austin-American Statesman (6 Sept 2005) Lance Armstrong claims he's thinking of a comeback to to the 2006 Tour de France "to piss the French off". Asked if he was serious about this, he answered "I'm training everyday".

However, it has subsequently been [reported that his agent, Mark Higgins, said: "Lance was just having a little fun with the French. He is retired and not coming back."

Yet on Lance Armstrong's home page, there is a link to a short article that has him stating "While I'm absolutely enjoying my time as a retired athlete with Sheryl and the kids, the recent smear campaign out of France has awoken my competitive side. I'm not willing to put a percentage on the chances but I will no longer rule it out..."

However, in a conference call with media on September 15, Armstrong ruled out a comeback, stating that he was too preoccupied with clearing his name of the doping allegations.

After his retirement from cycling, Armstrong has stated "I can't promise that I won't show up at a few cyclo-cross races and a few mountain bike races, and a few triathlons, or do a few 10k runs. I'm an athlete, I've been an athlete all my life." His cycling career may be over, but such talk has felled rumors that Armstrong will return to Triathlon and even that he will do the Hawaii Ironman. Some people claim that if Armstrong and his children lived in France then he would not have retired from cycling. So, preparing for a big one day race in Hawaii might be more of a reality for Armstrong if he wants to spend more time with his kids and a bit less time training.

Political possibilities

In an interview with the New York Times, teammate George Hincapie hinted at Armstrong possibly running for Governor of Texas after retiring from cycling. In the July 2005 issue of Outside magazine [9], Armstrong himself hinted at possibly running for Governor, although "not in '06." By Texas political standards, he would almost certainly run as a Democrat, as he has described himself in the past as being "middle to left," "against mixing up State and Church," "not keen on guns," opposed to the Iraq War, and pro-choice. U.S. Senator John Kerry, interviewed on OLN at the 2005 Tour de France, indicated Armstrong has the potential to be successful in politics. "I think he'd be awesome, he'd be a force. I just hope it's for the right party," Kerry said on OLN. President George W. Bush, a Republican and fellow Texan, also considers Armstrong to be a close friend. President Bush called Armstrong in France after his 2005 victory to congratulate him and in August, 2005 The Times (Can this bike ride be Bush's tour de force?) reported the President had invited Armstrong to his Prairie Chapel Ranch to go mountain biking.

Armstrong was quoted by The Times in 2004 about his views on Iraq: "I don't like what the war has done to our country, to our economy. My kids will be paying for this war for some time to come. George Bush is a friend of mine and just as I say it to you, I'd say to him, 'Mr President, I'm not sure this war was such a good idea', and the good thing about him is he could take that."

Most recently however, beginning in August, 2005, Armstrong has hinted that he has changed his mind about possibly entering politics. In an interview with Charlie Rose, that aired on PBS on August 1st, 2005, Armstrong pointed out that running for Governor would require the type of time commitments that caused him to decide to retire from cycling. Again on August 16, 2005, Armstrong told a local Austin CBS affiliate [10] that he is no longer considering politics. "The biggest problem with politics or running for the governor -- the governor's race here in Austin or in Texas is that it would mimic exactly what I've done: a ton of stress and a ton of time away from my kids. Why would I want to go from pro cycling, which is stressful and a lot of time away, straight into politics?"

Teams and victories


  • 1991–1992: United States National Team
  • 1992–1996: Motorola
  • 1997: Cofidis
  • 1998–2002: US Postal Service
  • 2003–2004: US Postal Service presented by Berry Floor
  • 2005: Discovery Channel Pro Cycling Team


First Union Grand Prix
GP Sanson
Longsjo Classic (1 stage win)
Thrift Drug Classic
Tour de Ribera (4 stage wins)
Thrift Drug Classic
Trofeo Laigueglia
8th stage of the Tour de France
USPro Championship
West Virginia Classic (2 stage wins)
World Road Championships
Thrift Drug Classic
Clasica San Sebastian
18th stage of the Tour de France
Tour du Pont (3 stage wins)
West Virginia Classic (1 stage win)
Stage 5 Paris Nice
Tour du Pont (5 stage wins)
La Flèche Wallonne
Rheinland-Pfalz Rundfahrt
Tour de Luxembourg (1 stage victory)
Cascade Classic
Tour de France(overall, 4 stage victories)
Prologue Critérium du Dauphiné Libéré (ITT)
Stage 4 Route du Sud
Stage 4 Circuit de la Sarthe (ITT)
Tour de France(overall, 1 stage victory)
GP des Nations
GP Eddy Merckx
Stage 3 Critérium du Dauphiné Libéré (ITT)
Bronze medal in the 2000 Summer Olympics Individual Time Trial, Men
Tour de France (overall, 4 stage victories)
Tour de Suisse (overall, 2 stage victories)
Tour de France (overall, 4 stage victories)
Critérium du Dauphiné Libéré, Stage 6 Critérium du Dauphiné Libéré
GP du Midi-Libre
Tour de France (overall, 1 stage victory, Team Time Trial)
Critérium du Dauphiné Libéré (Overall), Stage 3 Critérium du Dauphiné Libéré (ITT)
Tour de France (overall, 5 stage victories, Team Time Trial)
Tour de Georgia (overall, 2 stage victories)
Stage 5 Tour du Languedoc-Roussillon
Stage 4 Volta ao Algarve (ITT)
Tour de France (overall, 2 stage victory, Team Time Trial, Individual Time Trial)

Further reading

  • Lance Armstrong, Sally Jenkins: It's Not About The Bike. My Journey Back to Life (ISBN 0425179613), Putnam 2000. Armstrong's own account of his battle with cancer and subsequent triumphant return to bike racing.
  • Lance Armstrong, Sally Jenkins: Every Second Counts (ISBN 0385508719), Broadway Books 2003. Armstrong's account of his life after his first four Tour triumphs.
  • Linda Armstrong Kelly, Joni Rodgers: No Mountain High Enough : Raising Lance, Raising Me (ISBN 076791855X), Broadway Books 2002. Armstrong's mother's account of raising a world class athlete and overcoming adversity.
  • Daniel Coyle: Lance Armstrong's War : One Man's Battle Against Fate, Fame, Love, Death, Scandal, and a Few Other Rivals on the Road to the Tour De France (ISBN 0060734973), Harper Collins 2000. Former writer for Outside magazine documents Armstrong's road to the Tour in 2004.
  • Pierre Ballester, David Walsh: L.A. Confidentiel : Les secrets de Lance Armstrong (ISBN 2846751307), La Martinière (in French). Various circumstantial evidence pointing to Armstrong's doping.

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