Dallas, Texas

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"Dallas" redirects here. For other uses, see Dallas (disambiguation).
Aerial view of Dallas
Aerial view of Dallas
Dallas, Texas
Official flag of Dallas, Texas Official seal of Dallas, Texas
City flag City seal
City nickname: "Big 'D'"
Location of Dallas, Texas
Location in the state of Texas
Counties Dallas County
Collin County
Denton County
Kaufman County
Rockwall County
Mayor Laura Miller
Physical characteristics
385.0 mi² / 997.1 km²
     342.5 mi² / 887.2 km²
     42.5 mi² / 110.0 km²
     Total (2004)
5,589,670 (metro area)
     1,210,393 (city proper)
Latitude 32°47' N
Longitude 96°47' W
Time zone
     Summer (DST)
Central (UTC-6)
     Central (UTC-5)
Official website: www.dallascityhall.com

Dallas is the second-largest city within the State of Texas, eighth in the United States, and together with Fort Worth and the Mid-Cities form the largest metropolitan economic area in the south-central United States. As of the 2000 U.S. Census, Dallas had a total population of 1.1 million (est. as of July 1, 2004 at 1,210,393). Dallas is the county seat of Dallas County. A small portion of the city also extends into the neighboring counties of Collin County, Denton County, Kaufman County, and Rockwall County.

Dallas is within the Dallas–Plano–Irving metropolitan division and is the main cultural and economic center of the Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington metropolitan area, a title designated by the U.S. Census, and is colloquially referred to as the Dallas Fort Worth Metroplex or simply as "DFW". As of the 2000 census, the Metroplex had a population of about 5.1 million making it the fifth largest United States metropolitan area and one of the 50 largest metropolitan areas in the world. A more recent U.S. Census estimate, however, puts the metropolitan area population at about 5.6 million for 2003.

Dallas was named a "Gamma World City" by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group & Network (GaWC). The metro area is the largest concentration of corporate headquarters in the United States. The area is also served by the world's third busiest airport.



See also: Historical events of Dallas, Texas

Early settlers

The first European to visit the Dallas area was probably Athanase de Mezieres, in 1778. De Mezieres, a Frenchman then in the service of the King of Spain, probably crossed the West Fork of the Trinity River near present-day Fort Worth, having followed the western edge of the Eastern Cross Timbers from the Tawakoni Village on the Brazos River near present Waco. He then proceeded north to the Red River. De Mezieres wrote; "It is worthy to note that from the Brazos River on which the Tuacanas are established, and until one reaches the river which bathes the village of the Taovayzes (Red River), one sees on the right a forest that the natives appropriately call the Grand Forest. ...it is very dense, but not very wide. It seems to be there as a guide to even the most inexperienced, and to give refuge in this dangerous region to those who, few in number and lacking in courage, wish to go from one village to another." His biographer, Bolton, was convinced de Mezieres was describing the Eastern Cross Timbers and the route would have him crossing the West Fork of the Trinity River between the present Fort Worth and Arlington.

A city emerges

The city of Dallas was founded by John Neely Bryan in 1841 after first surveying the area in 1839. Bryan, who shared Sam Houston's insight into the wisdom of Indian customs, must also have realized that these Caddo indian trails intersected at one of the few natural fords for hundreds of miles along the wide Trinity floodplain. At what became known as "Bryan's Bluff" the river, which was an impassable barrier of mud and water between late fall and early spring, narrowed like an hourglass where it crossed a ridge of Austin chalk, providing a hard rock ford that became the natural N-S route between Republic of Texas settlements to the south and those of the expanding USA to the north. The N-S route and the ford at Bryan's Bluff became more important when the US annexed Texas in 1845.

Dallas County was established in 1846 and was named after George Mifflin Dallas, who was the eleventh United States Vice President at the time. However, the origin of the city's name is debatable; Bryan stated only that it was named "after my friend Dallas". Dallas was so called by its residents at least as early as 1843 and there are four theories as to the origin of the city's name:

Dallas was formally incorporated as a town in 1856, and in 1871 became a city.

In 1855, a group of European artists and musicians set up a utopian community west of Dallas called La Reunion. When that venture collapsed in 1857, many of the artists moved to Dallas where they established the base of the artist culture that exists today in the Deep Ellum neighborhood near downtown. In the 1970s, Reunion Arena and Reunion Tower (a trademark of the skyline) were named in honor of the La Reunion colony.

Dallas was a pretty insignificant place until after the American Civil War.

In 1871, railroads were beginning to approach the area and Dallas city leaders did not intend to be left out. They paid the Houston and Central Texas Railroad $5,000 to shift its route 20 miles (32 km) to the west and build its north-south tracks through Dallas, rather than through Corsicana as planned. A year later, Dallas leaders could not pay off the Texas and Pacific Railroad and so tricked it into running its east-west line though Dallas by having a rider attached to a state law which required the railroad to build its tracks through Browder Springs—which turned out to be just south of Main Street. The major north-south and east-west Texas railroad routes intersected in Dallas in 1873, thus ensuring its future as a commercial center.

The 20th century

Dallas quickly became the center of trade in cotton, grain, and even buffalo. As it entered the 20th century, Dallas transformed from an agricultural center to a center of banking, insurance, and other businesses. In 1930, oil was discovered 100 miles (160 km) east of Dallas and the city quickly became the financial center for the oil industry in Texas and Oklahoma. Then in 1958 the integrated-circuit computer chip was invented in Dallas by Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments. By the 1980s, when the oil industry mostly relocated to Houston, Dallas was beginning to benefit from a burgeoning technology boom (driven by the growing computer and telecom industries), while continuing to be a center of banking and business. In the 1990s, Dallas became known as Texas' Silicon Valley, or the "Silicon Prairie."

Dallas skyline from a levee on the Trinity River
Dallas skyline from a levee on the Trinity River

Geography and climate

The DFW metroplex at night, photographed from the International Space Station in early 2003. Dallas is the larger nexus of light on the right (east), Fort Worth the smaller on the left (west).  Blurriness over parts of the image is caused by clouds. Courtesy NASA.
The DFW metroplex at night, photographed from the International Space Station in early 2003. Dallas is the larger nexus of light on the right (east), Fort Worth the smaller on the left (west). Blurriness over parts of the image is caused by clouds. Courtesy NASA.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 997.1 km² (385.0 mi²). 887.2 km² (342.5 mi²) of it is land and 110.0 km² (42.5 mi²) of it is water. The total area is 11.03% water. These statistics are only for the city of Dallas proper. In fact, Dallas is a small part of the much larger urbanized area called the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex. About one in every four Texans lives in the DFW metroplex.

Dallas, and its surrounding area, is mostly flat and lies at an elevation ranging from 450 to 550 feet (140 to 170 m). The western edge of the "Austin Chalk" formation, a limestone escarpment, rises 200 feet (60 m) and runs roughly north-south through Dallas County. The uplift is particularly noticeable in the neighborhood of Oak Cliff and the cities of Cockrell Hill and Cedar Hill.

The Trinity River is a major Texas waterway that passes from the northwest right by the southern portion of downtown Dallas as it heads southeast to Houston. The river is flanked on both sides with a 50 foot (15 m) earthen levee to keep that part of the city from flooding. Several bridges traverse the river connecting southern Dallas to downtown Dallas. Businesses and businessmen, like Ross Perot, Jr., have pushed in recent years to build a multi-million-dollar, landmark bridge over the river and convert that section of the river into a park area with nearby commercial and retail services somewhat similar to the River Walk in San Antonio or Townlake in Austin. Some proponents claim this development would bring more life, commerce, revenue and lower crime to downtown Dallas and poorer, southern Dallas. Some critics charge the project is a façade to serve special financial interests of businessmen. Residents barely approved a bond proposal in 1998 to fund the Trinity River Project and work has progressed slowly towards implementing it. Ron Kirk, Dallas' first African American mayor, championed the project during his term as mayor as he did the new American Airlines Center in downtown. His successor, mayor Laura Miller—sometimes referred to as Dallas' first reform mayor—won the vacancy left by Kirk when he ran unsuccessfully for the U.S. Senate. Miller won in part based on her platform she would focus on the city's basic needs like roads and other infrastructure and city employees' pay; services some claimed were neglected at the cost of special projects like the American Airlines Center.

White Rock Lake is Dallas's other significant water feature. The lake and surrounding park is a popular destination in the Lakewood/Casa Linda neighborhoods for boaters, joggers, bikers, skaters and for related activities. The lake also boasts the 66 acre (270,000 m²) Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden on its shore. Bachman Lake, just northwest of Love Field, is a smaller lake and surrounding park that is also used for recreation.

Dallas lies near the southern end of the Tornado Alley that runs through the prairie lands of the midwest. In the spring, cool fronts moving from Canada collide with warm, humid air streaming in from the Gulf Coast. When these fronts meet over Dallas, severe storms are generated with spectacular lightning shows, torrents of rain, large hail and, at times, tornadoes.


SeaWIFS (2003) satellite image looking east over the southern USA, showing the location of Dallas and Fort Worth
SeaWIFS (2003) satellite image looking east over the southern USA, showing the location of Dallas and Fort Worth

North Texas sits near the edge of the North American craton of Precambrian age. The oldest rocks in Texas date from the Mesoproterozoic, about 1600 million years old. The greater Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex sits on gently tilted sediments. The region west of Weatherford, Texas consists of Pennsylvanian sediments that tilt a few degrees west. These sediments were deformed when Gondwana collided with Laurasia to form Pangea about 300 million years ago (Ma). A great mountain range formed, the Marathon-Ouachita-Appalachian-Variscan cordillera. This collapsed during the Triassic and Jurassic to form the Atlantic Ocean-Gulf of Mexico basin. Sea level rose as the supercontinent Pangea broke up. The Pennsylvanian mountains of DFW were eroded for about 190 million years until the mountains were worn down. The DFW metroplex sprawls across a 100km wide N-S trending belt of Cretaceous sediments. Fort Worth in the west is neatly built on Early Cretaceous (Comanche Series) and Dallas in the east is built on Late Cretaceous (Gulf Series) sediments. DFW lay on the beach about 110 Ma, during early Cretaceous time. The water kept rising for another 30-50 million years, so that by the time the coccolithophorid Austin chalk was deposited, the "Octopus Garden" that became DFW lay 100m or more below the sea surface. The inexorable rise in sealevel was only interrupted by tectonic rumblings in southern Arkansas and Oklahoma, shedding copious amounts of Woodbine Sandstone to the south. These sandstones underlie the cities of Denton, Grapevine, and Arlington, Texas. The Cretaceous sediments dip a degree or so the east, so the Cretaceous sediments get younger towards the east. Sediments deposited during the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event, when the dinosaurs were killed, lie near the town of Terrell, at the eastern edge of the DFW metroplex.

People enjoy searching for fossils in the rocks around Dallas. Remnants of dinosaurs and Late Cretaceous marine reptiles such as Mosasaur are found.

A simulated-color satellite image of Dallas and Fort Worth, Texas, taken by NASA's Landsat 7 satellite. Dallas makes up much of the right half of the urbanized area. Red is vegetated area surrounding DFW.  Notice also the many reservoirs in the area.
A simulated-color satellite image of Dallas and Fort Worth, Texas, taken by NASA's Landsat 7 satellite. Dallas makes up much of the right half of the urbanized area. Red is vegetated area surrounding DFW. Notice also the many reservoirs in the area.

The Trinity River has been important in shaping the DFW metroplex. Dallas was situated at the best ford, downstream from where the Elm Fork joins the main stream, where the river flows SE over the chalk. This provided a place where travellers need only cross the river once, at a place with relatively firm landings and bottoms. This was the best place to cross the Trinity from the earliest days, best for fordings, ferries, and bridges. During the days of the Republic of Texas, the DFW metroplex was mostly uninhabited by Europeans, but settlers began to find their way N in the 1840's. The route north naturally followed the low hills and gentle ridges of Austin chalk hills to the river ford that soon became Dallas. The future site of Dallas was selected by Bryan as the place for his trading post to overlook the ferry that he operated at the crossing.

Dallas was also affected subtly by much younger geologic formations related to an older, more vigorous Trinity River. Changing Pleistocene-Holocene climate had two effects on the Trinity River: It caused downcutting (few people know that there is a 100m-deep buried canyon beneath the Trinity in Dallas) and a wetter climate caused much more water to flow in the river. The greater river flow generated great sedimentary terraces. From time to time these terrace deposits reveal bones of extinct giant mammals, such as Mastodons and Mammoths. The Pleistocene terraces affected the development of Dallas, providing a rich alluvial soil and a perched aquifer, very useful indeed during the early years. Downtown Dallas is built on a series of these terraces, rising subtly eastward from the Trinity river.

The DFW meroplex had an additional, if subtle, geologic advantage. The Trinity is not good for navigation by boats but is great for drinking. Trinity River water is better than either of the larger rivers to the north and south, the Red River and the Brazos River. The larger rivers are longer and flow over salt-bearing Permian sediments, well west of the Trinity headwaters. The Trinity is consequently sweeter water than either the larger Brazos or Red rivers. Life was better near sweet water, and this simple fact helped DFW prosper relative to settlements on the larger rivers to the north and south. Because the Trinity is not suitable for navigation, Dallas could not have grown to be a large city until the railroad arrived, which happened early in Dallas' history, in the early 1870's. Dallas is thus truly a modern city, because it could not have grown so large until mechanical transportation systems made the Trinity disadvantage in river navigation insignificant.


Dallas gets about 30 inches (760 mm) of rain per year, much of which is delivered in the spring time. The climate of Dallas is classified a humid subtropical climate, yet this part of Texas also tends to get hot, dry winds from the north and west in the summer. In the winter, the winds are cool, which can cause the region to fall below freezing occasionally. A few inches of snow for a day or two falls about once each winter, and about every other winter the cool air from the north and the humid air from the south lead to freezing rain, which usually causes the city to come to a screeching halt for a day or two if the roads and highways become dangerously slick. Regardless, winters are relatively mild compared to the Texas Panhandle and other states to the north. Dallas winters are occasionally interspersed with Indian summers.

Spring and fall and the pleasant, moderate temperatures accompanying those seasons are somewhat short-lived in Dallas. However short the season is, residents and visitors appreciate the beauty of the vibrant wildflowers (such as the bluebonnet, Indian paintbrush and other flora) which bloom in spring and are planted around the highways throughout Texas. In the spring the weather can also be quite volatile and change quickly in a matter of minutes. The cliché about volatile climates popular in various parts of the US—"if you don't like the weather, wait a little while and it'll change"—applies well to Dallas' spring weather. Many consider autumn, around late September and October, to be the best time to visit the Metroplex. Yet many events are also scheduled for the more volatile season of spring.

The USDA rates the city of Dallas as being part of Zone 8.

Ongoing comparisons are made between Dallas' summer weather and Houston's. Texans generally agree Houston is significantly more humid and Dallas is slightly hotter, although given Houston's humidity it may have a higher heat index than Dallas.


As of the census2 of 2000, there are 1,188,580 people, 451,833 households, and 266,581 families residing in the city. The population density is 1,339.7/km² (3,469.9/mi²). There are 484,117 housing units at an average density of 545.7/km² (1,413.3/mi²). The racial makeup of the city is 50.83% White, 25.91% Black or African American, 0.54% Native American, 2.70% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 17.24% from other races, and 2.72% from two or more races. 35.55% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race. Hispanics outnumbered African-Americans for the first time in the 2000 census as the largest minority group in Dallas. Many newly-arrived Hispanics have settled in poorer neighborhoods like Oak Cliff that were once predominately African American. While Hispanics have moved in, many African Americans have migrated further south to cities like Cedar Hill or DeSoto that were predominately White communities until recently.

Astronaut photograph of clockwise: Plano-Dallas-DFW airport/Grapevine-Lewisville area.  This is the eastern half of the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex.  April, 2005. Courtesy NASA
Astronaut photograph of clockwise: Plano-Dallas-DFW airport/Grapevine-Lewisville area. This is the eastern half of the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex. April, 2005. Courtesy NASA

There are 451,833 households out of which 30.3% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.8% are married couples living together, 14.9% have a female householder with no husband present, and 41.0% are non-families. 32.9% of all households are made up of individuals and 6.5% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.58 and the average family size is 3.37.

In the city the population is spread out with 26.6% under the age of 18, 11.8% from 18 to 24, 35.3% from 25 to 44, 17.7% from 45 to 64, and 8.6% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 30 years. For every 100 females there are 101.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 100.5 males.

The median income for a household in the city is $37,628, and the median income for a family is $40,921. Males have a median income of $31,149 versus $28,235 for females. The per capita income for the city is $22,183. 17.8% of the population and 14.9% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 25.1% of those under the age of 18 and 13.1% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.


See also: List of major companies in Dallas/Ft.Worth

Downtown Dallas as seen from Lake Cliff
Downtown Dallas as seen from Lake Cliff
A portion of the Downtown skyline
A portion of the Downtown skyline

Since the Dallas/Fort Worth area is home to over 400 corporate headquarters today, the area is the largest corporate headquarters in the United States compared to any other metro. The area is sometimes called "Texas's Silicon Valley". Also, there are more than 40,000 telecommunication employees in the "Telecom Corridor" housing such companies as Southwestern Bell, AT&T, Alcatel, Ericsson, Fujitsu, MCI, Nokia, Nortel Networks, Rockwell, and Sprint. Central Dallas is supported by more than 100 miles (160 km) of fiber optic cable. According to the Dallas Women's Covenant, there are more than 81,000 women-owned firms in metropolitan Dallas. Although the Telecom industry was hit hard in the latest recession, most businesses in Dallas performed better on average than other regional economies.

A number of companies are based in the Dallas city limits, including:

AMR Corporation (parent company of American Airlines), Burlington Northern Santa Fe Corporation, Radio Shack, and Pier 1 Imports are based in Fort Worth. id Software is based in Mesquite. ExxonMobil, Michael's Stores, and Zale Corporation are headquartered in Irving. Electronic Data Systems, Frito Lay, Dr Pepper and JCPenney are headquartered in Plano. FUNimation is headquartered in North Richland Hills. Educational Products, Inc. is headquartered in Carrollton. Sabre Holdings, the owner of the Sabre System, is headquartered in Southlake. Halliburton Energy Services was once based in Dallas, but moved to Houston in 2003.

People and culture

See also: People of Dallas, Texas, Facts on Dallas, Texas

Pedestrians in Downtown
Pedestrians in Downtown

Dallasites are said to consider themselves more sophisticated than those in other parts of Texas, especailly those from Fort Worth. Because of the economic prowess of the region, many who live there had come from other U.S. states or countries worldwide. Dallasites eat out about four times every week, which is the third highest rate in the country. Dallas has two times the number of restaurants per person than New York City. Dallasites are very fond of their local sports teams especially "America's Team," the Dallas Cowboys. The Cowboys-- five time Super Bowl champions-- are well loved by locals, even during losing seasons, and even if another local team is a leader in its sport. Sports calendars and other memorabilia are very common, and on Sundays people tend to watch sports games on television. Major U.S Networks (i.e CBS, ABC, NBC, and FOX) have flagship transmitters in the city which helps the network broadcast well, especially if there is something wrong with electricity in the New York Area it can still be broadcast because of these transmitters. This was especially used during the 2003 North America blackout.

One drawback is that the city of Dallas has the highest crime rate among cities of 1,000,000 people or more (as of 2005, only nine cities in the United States have such a population. Detroit, Michigan has a higher crime rate, but it, after losing population, dropped out of the 1,000,000+ ranking and Dallas was pushed to the top.) Police Chief Terrell Bolton was fired by then—city manager Ted Benavides, and was replaced by David Kunkle, who was tasked with helping the city lose this designation.

Because Dallas and Houston are the two major economic centers of Texas, they enjoy a friendly rivalry. Selected characteristics of them are often compared. One major comparison is the populations of the two cities. Even though on a world-scale, they are about equal, Houston tends to boast because of a higher, if less dense, municipal population (the city encompasses most of its metropolitan area), and Dallas tends to boast because of a higher metropolitan population (the city of Dallas is bounded by suburbs, so much of the new growth occurs outside of Dallas proper.)


The overall crime rate in Dallas has been ranked as being 1st in the country for large cities from 1998 to 2003. Despite the fact that most of the city's neighborhoods are relatively immune to most violent crime, areas surrounding the city's expressways and some run-down apartment complexes have very high rates of violent crime. The violent crime rate in Dallas has been rated as the highest in the nation since 1998 In 1995, there were a record 280 murders. Most of the time, Dallas usually averages 240-245 murders a year. The highest murder count for Dallas was 407 back in 1992.


Dallas is located in the "Bible Belt", and there is a large Protestant influence on the community. Methodist and Baptist churches are prominent in many neighborhoods and anchor the city's two major private universities. The Cathedral Guadalupe Catholic Church oversees the second largest membership in the country. There is a vibrant Mormon community, and many members of the Jewish faith have long contributed to the city. Dallas also has a large Muslim community.


Dallas has more shopping centers per capita than any United States city and metro. There are several malls scattered around the Dallas/Ft.Worth Metroplex. Shopping malls in the area include Galleria Dallas (Dallas), Grapevine Mills (Grapevine), NorthPark Center (Dallas), Stonebriar Centre (Frisco), The Shops At Willow Bend (Plano), and Vista Ridge Mall (Lewisville).

Districts and communities

See also: Dallas Fort Worth Metroplex

Architectural structures[1]
By structural height By roof height

Old East Dallas-Lakewood-MStreets

The collection of old-fashioned neighborhoods lying between Downtown and White Rock Lake. Most homes were built in the early 1900s to 1950s. There are a large number of Historic and Conservation Districts reflecting some prodigious numbers of Craftsman, Prairie-Four Squares, Tudors, Spanish and Mediterranean Eclectic and Early Ranch homes, many of native Austin Stone. The homes range from two-bedroom bungalows to massive estates on acerage. There are also a fair number of duplexes, four-plexes and very small apartment complexes.

Some of the older homes are being torn-down in favor of much larger, more expensive homes. Real Estate appreciation in the East Dallas area has almost equaled parts of California and formerly run-down areas are now more expensive than most Dallas suburbs.

There are many unique shopping areas with funky shops, bars cafes and restaurants -- most are orginal and not chains nor franchises.

There are two exemplary and three recognized schools in the area. Woodrow Wilson High (circa 1928) is probably Dallas' best known school and one of its most beautiful. Affluent East Dallasites still support the public schools in this part of DISD.

Lower Greenville

The area stretching along Greenville Avenue south of Mockingbird Lane is referred to as "Lower Greenville" by Dallas locals. This section of the city is characterized by numerous bars, restaurants, concert venues, and tattoo parlors. Like Deep Ellum, the city's primary nightlife district, Lower Greenville is an extremely popular nighttime destination for singles and couples.

The Lower Greenville "entertainment district" is located in the middle of a number of unique residential area that includes many older and even historic homes. These neighborhoods include Lower Greenville, Vickery Place, Belmont Addition, Belmont, Greenland Hills and Hudson Heights.

The residential streets have a variety of legal and enforced parking restrictions, and the businesses do not have enough parking for all their patrons. The best way to get around is by taxi from the major hotels or public transit - the Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART) Light Rail's Mockingbird Station is just minutes away.

Oak Lawn

Oak Lawn is usually described as area between Cedar Springs Road/Oak Lawn Avenue and McKinney Avenue. It is considered one of the most vibrant and active gay and lesbian communities in the Southwest. It is noted for its "chi chi" restaurants, trendy condominiums, and nightlife district. The two best known bars in Oak Lawn are named "J.R.'s" (a male gay bar) and "Sue Ellen's" (a lesbian bar) after conventionally heterosexual characters from the 1970s/1980s television drama. The irony of these names is not lost on locals, but many tourists and visiting businessmen get quite a surprise.

No more than fifty feet away in between the two best known bars in Oak Lawn, is what has been deemed "The Best Dance Bar" in the southwest, "Station 4 (S4)", matches every expectation of the clubs you see in the movies. The club recently underwent a multi-million dollar renovation that re-opened in December 2004 with rave reviews. Inside S4 is another club, "The Rose Room", featuring award winning female impersonators (or "drag show"), also ranked among the best in the southwest. Bars and clubs on the west side of this strip are owned and operated by Caven Enterprises.


A sizeable Koreatown can be found in Dallas, though this mostly commercial area of the city has not been officially designated as such. The Koreatown is located near Interstate Highway 35, centering on the intersection of Royal Lane and Harry Hines Blvd. This area in the northwest part of the city is characterized by a large number of Korean-owned businesses serving the city's sizeable Korean American community. Very few Korean Americans actually reside in the Dallas Koreatown, despite the concentration of Korean American commercial enterprises there, but rather live elsewhere in the two cities or in their many suburbs. As a result of this, there are relatively few Korean churches, often considered the social centers of Korean American communities, in the Koreatown area. Instead, one can find a large number of Korean restaurants, cafes, Korean-style karaoke bars (noraebang) featuring song selections in Korean and English, bars serving soju and fried chicken, Korean grocery stores (including the large Komart grocery store on Royal Lane), gift shops featuring popular Asian cartoon paraphernalia (including an outlet store for the Korean chain Morning Glory), and discount retail stores. The influx of these Korean-owned businesses into the area within the past two decades has been credited with revitalizing a once-deteriorating Dallas neighborhood, previously characterized by adult entertainment centers and prostitution. Some remnants of this past can still be seen in the area today.

In addition to Koreatown, smaller concentrations of Korean business can be found in the Dallas suburbs of Garland (most notably at the intersection of Walnut Hill Road and Plano Road) and Richardson (more notable for its large Chinese and Vietnamese American shopping centers along Greenville Avenue between Arapaho and Belt Line), Irving , and the Ft. Worth suburb of Arlington, among others.

Deep Ellum

Deep Ellum is an area just east of downtown between Interstate 45 and Abrams Street which has been historically occupied with counter-culture venues including a variety of bars and clubs featuring regular music acts and resturants. Deep Ellum is widely regarded as the center of local music in Dallas, venues such as Tree's, The Curtain Club, and The Gypsy Tearoom showcase live local music almost every day of the week. Despite its reputation as a dangerous, unpredictable area Deep Ellum is actually a close knit neighborhood with many of the locals claiming residence for tens of years. Only during the weekend when thousands of people pour into Deep Ellum for the nightlife does the neighborhood become the wild west. Although a recent rise in crime has hindered businesses in the area, Deep Ellum continues to be a popular gathering place for the city's young bar-hopping and clubbing crowd.


Exposition Avenue is located East of downtown between Deep Ellum and Fair park. Similar to Deep Ellum, Exposition consists of various bars, venues, and resturants and is a popular nighttime destination. However, Exposition is widely regarded as more laid back and mature then Deep Ellum with many of the Exposition locals prefering their neighborhood stay free of the crowds and commotion in nearby Deep Ellum.

Oak Cliff

Oak Cliff is an old part of the city that was originally considered a "suburb" from 1887 until 1911. For most of its history, Oak Cliff had a middle to upper-middle class white population, but changed drastically in the 1960s due to changes in the city's ethnic and racial fabric. In the 1970s, Oak Cliff became predominantly black due to white flight. In the 1980s, Mexican immigrants began to pour into Oak Cliff, and now it is a unique mixture of Black and Mexican homes and businesses. In the early 2000s, Mayor Laura Miller sought to "clean up" Oak Cliff and force residents to give up their goats, chickens, and pigs (among other farm animals), but ultimately this initiative failed. The community is colloquially known as The Cliff in contemporary jargon.

On November 22, 1963, after assassinating John F. Kennedy, Lee Harvey Oswald took a bus to Oak Cliff. There he murdered Officer J.D. Tippet, hid in the Texas Theater on Jefferson Boulevard, and was captured there.


Colleges and universities

The Dallas area is home to several institutions of higher learning including:

Public schools

Most of Dallas is a part of the Dallas Independent School District.

Other parts of Dallas extend into other districts, including Carrollton-Farmers Branch, Duncanville, Garland, Highland Park, Mesquite, Plano, Richardson, and Wilmer-Hutchins (which has closed for the 2005-2006 year; WHISD students are in Dallas ISD for that year).


See also: U.S. cities with teams from four major sports

American Airlines Center from the plaza.
American Airlines Center from the plaza.

Dallas is home to the Dallas Desperados (Arena Football League), Dallas Mavericks (National Basketball Association), and Dallas Stars (National Hockey League). All three teams play at the American Airlines Center. The Major League Soccer team F.C. Dallas, formerly the Dallas Burn, used to play in the Cotton Bowl but moved to the recently constructed Pizza Hut Park in Frisco in 2005. The Dallas Sidekicks, a team of the Major Indoor Soccer League, plays in Reunion Arena.

Nearby Irving is home to the Dallas Cowboys of the National Football League while Arlington is home to the Texas Rangers of Major League Baseball.

Other teams in the Dallas area include the Frisco RoughRiders of Minor League Baseball in Frisco. The Dallas Diamonds, a Women's Professional Football League Women's American football team, plays in North Richland Hills. McKinney is home to the Dallas Revolution, an Independent Women's Football League Women's American football team while the Dallas Fury of the National Women's Basketball League plays at Hebron High School in Carrollton.


Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport serves most passengers flying in and out of the metroplex. It is the primary hub of American Airlines which is headquartered just outside the airport in Fort Worth.
Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport serves most passengers flying in and out of the metroplex. It is the primary hub of American Airlines which is headquartered just outside the airport in Fort Worth.


Dallas is served by two commercial airports: Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (known as DFW International) and Dallas Love Field. In addition, Dallas Executive Airport (formerly Redbird Airport), is a general aviation airport located within the city limits, and Addison Airport is another general aviation airport located just outside the city limits in the suburb of Addison. Two more general aviation airports are located in the outer suburb of McKinney, and on the west side of the Metroplex, two general aviation airports are located in Fort Worth.

DFW International Airport is located in the suburbs north of and equidistant to downtown Fort Worth and downtown Dallas. In terms of size, DFW is the largest airport in the state, the second largest in the United States, and third largest in the world. In terms of traffic, DFW is the busiest in the state, fourth busiest in the United States, and sixth busiest in the world. DFW is also home base to American Airlines, the world's largest airline.

Love Field is located within the city limits of Dallas, 6 miles (10 km) northwest of downtown, and is headquarters to Southwest Airlines. Under the Federal "Wright Amendment" and "Shelby Amendment" laws, no large jet air service is allowed from Dallas Love Field to any point beyond Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Kansas, Mississippi, and Alabama. As such, Southwest and Continental Express are the only major airlines flying out of that airport. Ongoing efforts to relax or abandon these restrictions, such as Southwest Airlines campaign to "Set Love Free"; however, no efforts have succeeded thus far (see Love Field Airport for a history of the Wright Amendment).

Trains and buses

Passengers at White Rock Station on DART's Blue Line
Passengers at White Rock Station on DART's Blue Line
Passengers at Union Station
Passengers at Union Station

Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART) is the Dallas area public transportation authority, providing buses, rail, and HOV lanes. DART began operating the first light rail system in the Southwest United States in 1996 and continues to expand its coverage. Currently, two light rail lines are in service. The red line goes through Oak Cliff, Downtown, Uptown, North Dallas, Richardson, and Plano. The blue line goes through South Dallas, Downtown, Uptown, North Dallas, and Garland. The red and blue lines are conjoined in between 8th & Corinth Station in Oak Cliff and Mockingbird Station in North Dallas. The two lines service Cityplace Station, the only subway station in the Southwest. Two more lines will be in service by the end of the decade bringing the light rail transit mileage to at least 93, the orange and purple. This will connect southeast Dallas to far north Carrollton and LBJ Freeway to DFW International Airport; both via Dallas Love Field. The yellow line will meet Denton County's future commuter rail system. Further ambitions include expanding the commuter rail network in the region to over 250 miles; expanding the DART light rail network to over 150 miles with a downtown subway included; expanding the M-Line streetcar; starting a modern streetcar line in Fort Worth; utilizing the elevated Las Colinas Automated Personal Transit system with DART rail connections. The DART light rail system remained the only light rail system in Texas until Houston opened its starter light rail system (one line running less than 10 miles) in 2004. Fort Worth's smaller public transit system connects with Dallas' via a commuter rail line, the Trinity Railway Express, connecting downtown Dallas's Union Station with downtown Fort Worth's T&P Station and several points in between. The system of light rail transit, especially through downtown, has skyrocketed land values and has sparked a residential living boom in Downtown. Although the system is increasingly popular, most people in the Metroplex still choose to drive their vehicles rather than take public transportation.

Freeways and tollways

See also: List of Dallas freeways

Sister cities

Dallas has six sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International, Inc. (SCI): Brno (Czech Republic), Dijon (France), Monterrey (Mexico), Riga (Latvia), Kirkuk (Iraq), Saratov (Russia), and Taipei (Taiwan). Dallas also maintains a friendship city relationship with Sendai (Japan), although it is not recognized by Sister Cities International.

See also

Further reading

  1. Herbert E. Bolton, "Athanase de Mezieres and the Louisiana-Texas Frontier 1768-1780," Cleveland: Arthur H Clark Company, 1914.
  2. John William Rogers, "The Lusty Texans of Dallas " E P Dutton, 1951

External links

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Flag of the City of Dallas

City of Dallas: Neighborhoods


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