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For other uses, see Manitoba (disambiguation).
Provincial flag of Manitoba Coat of arms of Manitoba
(Flag of Manitoba) (Coat of Arms of Manitoba)
Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Glorious and free)
Map of Canada with Manitoba highlighted
Other Canadian provinces and territories
Capital Winnipeg
Largest city Winnipeg
Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard
Premier Gary Doer (NDP)
Area 647,797 km² (8th)
Land 553,556 km²
Water 64,241 km² (14.5%)
Population (2005)
Population 1,176,132 (5th)
Density 1.80 /km² (8th)
Admittance into Confederation
Date July 15, 1870
Order 5th
Time zone UTC-6
Parliamentary representation
House seats 14
Senate seats 6
Postal MB
ISO 3166-2 CA-MB
Postal Code Prefix R
Web site

Manitoba is one of Canada's provinces. It is the fifth Canadian province (created by the government in 1870). Its population as of April 1, 2005 (Statistics Canada) was 1,176,132 (Manitobans). It is the easternmost of the three Prairie Provinces.

Its capital and largest city (containing over one half the provincial population) is Winnipeg. Other important cities and towns include Brandon, Thompson, Dauphin, Swan River, Churchill, The Pas, Selkirk, Portage la Prairie, Flin Flon, Steinbach, Morden, and Winkler.



Manitoba is located in the longitudinal centre of Canada, although it is considered part of Western Canada. It borders Saskatchewan to the west, Ontario to the east, Nunavut to the north, and the American states of North Dakota and Minnesota to the south.

The province has a coast with Hudson Bay, and contains the very large Lakes Winnipeg, Manitoba (its namesake), and Winnipegosis. Important watercourses include the Red River, Assiniboine River, Nelson River, Winnipeg River, Hayes River and Churchill River.

It is generally flat and low-lying though there are some hilly areas in the province. Baldy Mountain is the highest point at 831m (2,727 feet) and the Hudson Bay coast the lowest at sea level. Other upland areas include Riding Mountain, the Pembina Hills, and the Canadian Shield regions to the east.

The climate in Manitoba is typical of its mid continent location and northerly latitude. In general, temperatures and precipitation decrease from south to north. Summers are generally warm to hot and winters very cold. Both spring and autumn are contracted seasons. As Manitoba is far removed from the moderating influences of both mountain ranges and large bodies of water (all of Manitoba's lakes freeze during the winter months), and because of its generally flat landscape, it is exposed to numerous weather systems throughout the year including prolonged cold spells in the winter months when arctic high pressure air masses settle over the province. This has resulted in the capital of the province being nicknamed "Winterpeg". In the summer months the climate is often influenced by low pressure air masses originating in the Gulf of Mexico resulting in hot and humid conditions and frequent thunderstorms.

Only the southern parts of the province support extensive agriculture. The northern reaches of the province range through coniferous forests, muskeg, and up to tundra in the far north. There is approximately 24,000 square miles of untouched boreal forest on the eastern side of Lake Winnipeg. This area is renowned by naturalists and sportsmen for its pristine wilderness.

Entering Manitoba from Saskatchewan on the Yellowhead Highway.
Entering Manitoba from Saskatchewan on the Yellowhead Highway.
Ten largest municipalities
by population
Municipality 2001 1996
Winnipeg 619,544 618,477
Brandon 39,716 39,175
Thompson 13,256 14,385
Portage la Prairie 12,976 13,077
Springfield 12,602 12,162
Hanover 10,789 9,833
St. Andrews 10,695 10,144
Selkirk 9,752 9,881
Steinbach 9,227 8,478
St. Clements 9,115 8,516


Manitoba was settled by members of the Ojibwa and Assiniboine tribes. The first European to reach present-day Manitoba was Sir Thomas Button, who visited the Nelson River in 1612. Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, Sieur de la Vérendrye, visited the Red River Valley in the 1730s as part of opening the area for French exploration and exploitation. An important French-Canadian population (Franco-Manitobains) still lives in Manitoba, especially in the Saint-Boniface district of Winnipeg.

The territory was won by Britain in 1763 as part of the French and Indian War, and became part of Rupert's Land, the immense monopoly territory of the Hudson's Bay Company.

Manitoba Legislature
Manitoba Legislature

The founding of the first agricultural community in 1811 by Lord Selkirk, near modern Winnipeg, resulted in conflict between the white colonists and the Métis who lived near there. Twenty colonists, including the governor, were killed by the Métis in the Battle of Seven Oaks in 1816.

When Rupert's Land was ceded to Canada in 1869 and incorporated into the Northwest Territories, a lack of attention to Métis concerns led their leader Louis Riel to establish a provisional government, The Red River Rebellion. Negotiations between this government and the Canadian government resulted in the creation of the province of Manitoba and its entry into Confederation in 1870.

Originally the province was only 1/18 of its current size and square in shape - it was known as the "postage stamp province." It grew progressively, absorbing land from the Northwest Territories until it attained its current size by reaching 60°N in 1912.


Ethnic origin

Note: the percentages do not necesarily add up to 100% as multiple responses are allowed.

Ethnic origins with less than 3% of the responses are not listed. Source

Manitoba is home to the largest Icelandic population outside of Iceland.[1] There are about 26,000 people with Icelandic ancestry living in Manitoba.[2] About 35% of the Icelandic-Canadian population lives in Manitoba.[3]

Religious groups

Religions that make up less than 1% are not listed. Source



See also

Provinces and territories of Canada Flag of Canada
Provinces: Alberta | British Columbia | Manitoba | Newfoundland and Labrador | New Brunswick | Nova Scotia | Ontario | Quebec | Prince Edward Island | Saskatchewan
Territories: Northwest Territories | Nunavut | Yukon
  Manitoba Communities Flag of Manitoba

Manitoba Cities: Brandon | Dauphin | Flin Flon | Portage la Prairie | Selkirk | Steinbach | Thompson | Winkler | Winnipeg

Manitoba Regions: Winnipeg Capital Region | Central Plains | Eastman | Interlake | Northern | Parkland | Pembina Valley | Westman

External links

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