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Location of Pune
Location 18°34'N° N 73°58'E° E
State Maharashtra
District Pune
Mayor Rajni Tribhuvan
Altitude 560 metres
Area 430 km²
Population (2001) 3,755,000
Density 8,733/km²
  • Postal
  • Telephone
  • Vehicle
411 0xx
MH 12
Time zone IST (UTC +5:30)

Pune (पुणे in Marathi), formerly Punavadi and Poona (पूना in Hindi), Maharashtra state, western India, is situated at the confluence of the Mula and Mutha rivers. Called the “Queen of the Deccan,” Pune is the cultural capital of the Marathi people. According to the 2001 census provisional results, it had a population of 3,755,000 in 2001. This figure includes the population of the city of Pimpri-Chinchwad which is the industrial twin of Pune. The combined population of the metropolitan region would be between 4.5 to 5 million in 2004. Marathi is the language of the majority of the people residing here. This decade has seen a sizeable investment in the software and automobile sector, in the city. This has prompted a huge influx of youth from all over the country. Several suburbs are now completely cosmopolitan, and real-estate prices have boomed.




Pune is situated near the Western margin of the Deccan Plateau. It lies on the leeward side of the Sahyadri Range and the Western Ghats, 560 m above sea level, at the confluence of the Mula and Mutha rivers. Two more rivers, the Pavana River and the Indrayani River traverse the Northwestern outskirts of the urban area. The Sinhagad-Katraj-Dive Ghats range is the Southern Boundary of the urban area. The highest point in the city is Vetal Hill (800 m above msl) where as the highest point just outside the urban areas is the Sinhagad Fort (1300 m above msl).

Temperature records: The maximum temperature recorded was 110 °F (43 °C) on 30 April 1987 and 7 May 1889. The minimum recorded during 1881-1940 was 35 °F (2 °C) on 17 January 1935. [1]

The city receives an annual rainfall of 722 mm, mainly between June and September as a result of southwest monsoon. [2]


A vibrant city, Pune is a place where the past meets the present. It is one of those rare cities with a twin image: that of a tradition-bound place — generally considered the quintessence of Maharashtrian culture — and that of a modern industrial metropolis. Pune today straddles both banks of the Mula and Mutha rivers (tributaries of the larger Bhima River). The confluence (sangam) of the these in the heart of the city forms a spectacular scenic landmark. The oldest extant structure in the city is the rock-cut temple of Pataleshwar, from the 8th century AD. The cave-temple complex is also called Panchaleshvara cave. This cave, once situated outside limits of the old town, is now squarely in the middle of the city on Jungli Maharaj Road.

Earliest references to the city are from the 11th century, when there was walled settlement known as "Kasbe Pune". This ward is the oldest part of the city, and is known today as Kasba Peth. Pune's medieval roots are also evident in a number of temples and mosques. The present name "Pune" is derived from Punya Nagari (literally city of virtuous deeds). The Rashtrakutas have been found to be the earliest rulers of the city.

Pune is inextricably linked with the life of the great Maratha hero and king, Chhatrapati Shivaji. Pune's fame begins with when Chhatrapati Shivaji came to stay here with his mother Jijabai in 1635-36. Shivaji and his mother lived in a mansion known as Lal Mahal, a replica of which still can be visited at its original location in the city. According to local lore, the Kasba Ganapati Mandir, today regarded as the presiding deity of the city (gramadevata), was built by Jijabai. In the early 18th century, prime minister of Chhatrapati Shahu, Peshwe Baji Rao 1 wanted to make Pune his home which was agreed by the king. He built his palace on a slightly raised ground near the Mutha river which is now Shaniwar Peth. The fortified palace that came up is known as Shaniwar Wada. Shaniwar Wada is considered by many to be the focal point of the old city of Pune.

In 1817, war broke out beteween the Maratha and the British. A battle was fought in Khadki, a town just outside the city. The Peshwas were defeated and the British forces took over the town. The British realized the importance of the city and built a large cantonment, to the east of the city. Later, Pune was pronounced the Monsoon Capital of the Bombay Presidency.

During the freedom struggle, Pune took its place as an important center of the social and religious reform movement that was sweeping the country. Pune was the home for reformers who were stalwarts of the national movement, such as Mahadev Govind Ranade, R.G Bhandarkar and Mahatma Jyotirao Phule. The presence of Bal Gangadhar Tilak dominated the political scene for three decades during this period.

After Independence(1947), Pune's reputation as an educational and research node grew with the establishment of the University of Pune, the National Defence Academy (NDA), National Chemical Laboratory and other such institutes.


Pune is a major industrial centre, worthy of being termed Detroit of India. It is home to one of the world's largest two-wheeler manufacturers — Bajaj Auto. It is also home to Kinetic Engineering, Force Motors (previously known as Bajaj Tempo). India's largest motor company, Tata Motors has its plant here. DaimlerChrysler also has an assembly line for its Mercedes Benz brand. Cummins Engines Co Ltd has a Research & Technology India center in Pune in addition to its manufacturing plant here. Whirlpool as well as LG have appliance manufacturing plants near Pune. Frito Lay and Coca Cola also have manufacturing plants in Pune. Pune is also home to numerous small and medium sized enterprises.

Pune has a burgeoning software industry. Many of India's major software players such as TCS, Infosys, Wipro, Mahindra British Telecom, Kale Consultants, and Persistent Systems and global majors like IBM, Cognizant, Sasken, KPIT Cummins Infosystems Inc.,Amdocs, Avaya, Veritas Software, and TIBCO Software have a major presence in Pune's various Software Technology Parks.

Pune is also becoming a prominent city for Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) companies. Companies like Convergys, WNS, Progeon, EXL have started their operations. Pune comes as a natural choice for BPO companies due to the availability of skilled manpower.

With the construction of the six-lane Mumbai-Pune Expressway, this city is now less than a three hour drive from Mumbai. To cater to this explosive growth, the state is planning a 1,000 MW power plant exclusively for Pune. An International Airport at Chakan is also on the cards. MIDC is the lead agency for the Project. An International Convention Center is also underway at Senapati Bapat Road and is been constructed by MCCIA.

Notably, even though Pune is the seventh-largest city in India, it has the sixth largest metropolitan economy and the highest per capita income in India, with the least income disparity between the rich and poor.


Pune has many institutions of higher education, including the University of Pune. Specialized institutions include the Symbiosis Institute of Mass Communication (SIMC), the College of Engineering, B.J. Medical College, the Armed Forces Medical College, the Inter-University Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, and the National Chemical Laboratory. National Defence Academy (NDA), which trains officers of India's armed forces, is located at Khadakwasla, on the outskirts of Pune. Fergusson College (1885) is the oldest and one of the most important colleges in this city. Other famous colleges include Brihan Maharashtra College of Commerce.

Students from all over India, the Middle East, and Africa come to Pune for higher education, particularly in engineering and management. Pune is also rapidly becoming a major center for Information Technology (IT) in India. With numerous engineering and management institutes it was called the Oxford of the East by Jawaharlal Nehru, India's first Prime Minister.

Pune is also known for its high standards in high-school education. Some of the noted schools include The Bishop's School, St Vincent's High School, Loyola High School, and the international Mahindra United World College of India.


Pune is a vibrant cultural city and home to people of various religious denomination and demoninations. It is also plays host to various festivals and cultural events throughout the year.During the months of August or September each year, the city celebrates the Hindu festival of Ganesh Chaturthi. The festival culminates in a carnival-like procession along the busy thoroughfares of the city. This is one of the most important yearly events in the city. Indeed, it was in Pune that Lokmanya Tilak initiated the concept of the "Sarvajinik Ganeshotsav" - the collective communal celebration of the festival of Lord Ganesha. The city also has an active theater community.

In the month of December Pune plays host to the Sawai Gandharva Music Festival. Many renowned performers of Hindustani classical music perform through 3 consecutive nights creating an extravaganza which is unique to this city.

Pune is the birth place of Meher Baba as well as the home of Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh. Rajneesh's Osho Ashram helps bring a very international flair to the city. Situated amidst nature, the center boasts of a big meditation center and two beautiful gardens, viz. Osho garden and Zen garden.

Pune has been one of the centers of the neo-Buddhist revival movement begun by B. R. Ambedkar in 1956. It also houses the headquarters of the Trailokya Bauddha Mahasangha Gana, the Indian affiliate of the Friends of the Western Buddhist Order.

Pune was also home to a considerable population of the Indian Jewish community, the Bene Israel. It is home to Asia's largest synagogue (outside Israel), The Ohel David Synagogue which is locally referred to as Lal Dheval.

Close to Pune City are the villages Alandi and Dehu where Sant Dnyaneshwar and Sant Tukaram belong. Each year thousands of pilgrims from all over Maharashtra gather here and start 'Wari' which is procession carrying 'palkis' of Sant Dnyaneshwar and Sant Tukaram to Pandharpur. Pandharpur is home to Lord Vitthal and is about 300 km from Pune. All pilgrims walk out this distance to reach Pandharpur on the auspicious day of 'Aashasdi Ekadasshi' when the 'Wari' ends.

The Backhills of Pune are becoming known for their immense spiritual value. People from other countries and other parts of India go to these schools to study the Vedas, and other holy scriptures of Hinduism.

Transport system

The Pune Municipal Transport (PMT) is Pune's public transport service, Pune Municipal undertaking. PMT is an important mode of transport. In addition to this however, is the Auto Rickshaw, which is used in great numbers all across Pune. It is used so frequently because of its quick ride, and generally friendly service, which is usually available at night.

The merger of the PMT and the Pimpri-Chinchwad Municipal Transport (PCMT) is also on the cards which would give birth to the much larger PMTU or Pune Metropolitan Transport Undertaking. This is expected to improve the public transportation problem that currently plagues the city.


Places of interest

  • Parvati Temple
  • Shaniwarwada
  • Fergusson College
  • Aga Khan palace also famous as Gandhi Museum
  • Alandi for Sant Dnyaneshwar Temple
  • Dehu for Sant Tukaram Temple
  • Kelkar Museum
  • Kamala Nehru Park
  • The art Gallery at Balgandharva Rangamandir
  • Osho Rajneesh Ashram
  • Sinhagad Fort
  • Handmade-Paper Factory
  • Lonavala and Khandala hill stations
  • Panshet Dam
  • Koregaon Park
  • Khadakwasla Dam
  • Poona Club
  • Pubs/Discs: Kiva, 10 Downing Street, Cactus, Thousand Oaks, Leather Lounge, Aqua Lounge, Nirvana, Ole, Ivoe's, Scream, Fire N Ice, Curve, Elysium, Wunderbarr, Not Just Jazz by the Bay, Soho, Palazzo
  • Open Space, Prabhat Road
  • Durga Cold Coffee
  • And the one and only Vaishali, most popular eatery since the 70's

Important roads

Main article: Roads Of Pune

Important phone numbers

  • City (STD) Code- 020
  • Police- 100 , 26123825/ 26122202
  • Hospitals- Sassoon 26128000, Ruby Hall Clinic 26123391, K.E.M 26125600 / 26125601
  • Fire Stations- 101, 24458950
  • Pune Municipal Corporation- 25532521
  • Railway- 131, 26126575
  • Airlines- 140, 26138670
  • State Road Transport- 26126218
  • MSEB (Power Supply)- 26132078, 26360408

Current Events

Sister cities

Pune is known to have two sister cities (aka twinned towns) San Jose, California, USA and Bremen, Germany

Movie halls

  • Alaka (only English)
  • Vijay (mostly English, also hosts screenings like 'children's movies' or 'Hitchcock Festival' and such)
  • Apollo
  • Deccan Talkies (demolished ?)
  • Vasant
  • Mangala (Multiplex)
  • Neelayam (One of the biggest screens)
  • Rahul (70 mm screen)
  • Prabhat (always Marathi)
  • E - SQUARE (multiplex)
  • INOX (multiplex)
  • City Pride (multiplex)
  • Gold Adlabs (multiplex)
  • Alpana (mostly adult)
  • Sri Krishna (mostly adult)
  • West End
  • Bharat (always adult)
  • Laxminarayan
  • City Pride - Kothrud (Multiplex)


  • Bal Gandharva Ranga Mandir
  • Tilak Smarak Mandir
  • Bharat Natya Mandir
  • Yashwant Rao Chawan Natya Mandir
  • Nehru Memorial Hall

Famous personalities

Pune District

15,642 km²
Population (As of 2001)

Pune Division

Pune Division is one of the six divisions of Maharashtra. Pune Division is bound by Konkan Division to the west, Nashik Division to the north, Marathwada (Aurangabad Division) to the east, and the state of Karnataka to the south.

  • Area: 57,268 km²
  • Population (As of 2001 census): 9,973,761
  • Districts: Kolhapur, Pune, Sangli, Satara, Solapur
  • Literacy: 76.95%
  • Area under irrigation: 8,896 km²
  • Main crops: Jowar, wheat, bajra, sugarcane, rice, soybean, onion, groundnut, vegetables, turmeric, grape, pomegranate

External links

Official websites




Other institutes

Other information

Indian metropolitan cities

Cities in Maharashtra with population of more than 1 million
Mumbai | Pune | Nagpur | Nasik
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