San Marino

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For other uses, see San Marino (disambiguation).

The Most Serene Republic of San Marino or San Marino (Italian: Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino or San Marino) is one of the smallest nations in the world. Located in southern Europe, it is landlocked by Italy, and is one of the European microstates.

Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino
Flag of San Marino San Marino: Coat of Arms
(In Detail) (In Detail)
National motto: Libertas
(Latin: Liberty)
Location of San Marino
Official language Italian
Capital San Marino
Largest City Serravalle
Captains Regent: Claudio Muccioli and Antonello Bacciocchi
 - Total
 - % water
Ranked 190th
61 km²
 - Total (2000)
 - Density
Ranked 189th
Independence 3 September 301
Currency Euro (€)
Time zone
 - in summer
National anthem Inno Nazionale (no words) Music
Internet TLD .sm
Calling Code +378 (+0549 from Italy)



Main article: History of San Marino

San Marino claims to be the world's oldest republic still in existence, founded in A.D. 301 by a skilled builder referred to as St. Marinus. Legally part of the Roman Empire at the time, its foundation does not correspond to its legal existence. Its written constitution was adopted on October 8, 1600. The tiny nation was recognised by Napoleon's France in 1797, and by the other European nations at the 1815 Congress of Vienna.

Although a sovereign nation, it is strongly dependent on Italy, by which it has been completely surrounded since that country's unification in the 19th century.

Giuseppe Garibaldi was unifying Italy in the 1860s and took refuge from his enemies in San Marino. There he acquired aid and money and supplies to continue his campaign for unification from San Marino's citizens and leaders. In return, Garibaldi guaranteed that San Marino would always be an independent sovereign state.


Main article: Politics of San Marino

The Consiglio Grande e Generale, or Grand and General Council, is elected by popular vote every five years. This parliament selects two of its members to serve as Regents for periods of six months. These regents are known as the Capitani Reggenti, or Ruling Captains. The Capitani Reggenti and the cabinet form the executive branch of the government.

The Council also elects the Consiglio dei XII (Council of Twelve), which forms the judicial branch during the period of legislature of the Council.


San Marino is divided into nine municipalities, known locally as castelli, that are also towns. See list of cities in San Marino.


Map of San Marino
Map of San Marino
Main article: Geography of San Marino

San Marino is an enclave in Italy, on the border between the regioni of Emilia-Romagna and Marche. Its topography is dominated by the Apennines mountain range, and it has a rugged terrain. The highest point in the country, Monte Titano, is situated at 749 m above sea level. There are no bodies of water of any significant size.

The climate is Mediterranean, with warm summers and mild winters.

San Marino is the third-smallest country in Europe, with only Vatican City and Monaco being smaller.


Main article: Economy of San Marino

Although San Marino is not an official European Union member, it is allowed to use the euro as its currency by virtue of arrangements with the council of the European Union; it is also granted the right to use its own designs on the national side of the euro coins. Before the Euro, the Sammarinese lira was coupled to and exchangeable with the Italian lira. The small number of Sammarinese euro coins, as was the case with the lire before it, are primarily of interest to coin collectors.

The tourist sector contributes over 50% of San Marino's GDP, with more than 3.3 million tourists visiting in 1997. The key industries are banking, electronics, and ceramics. The main agricultural products are wine and cheese.

San Marino's postage stamps, which are only valid within the country, are mostly sold to philatelists and also form a source of income.

The per capita level of output and standard of living are comparable to those of Italy, which supplies much of its food.


Main article: Sport of San Marino

One of the Formula One races, the San Marino Grand Prix, is named after the state, although it does not actually take place there. San Marino itself is considered too small to hold its own grand prix. It takes place at the Autodromo Enzo e Dino Ferrari in the Italian town of Imola, about 100 km northwest of San Marino, along the Via Emilia.

The national football association has been a member of FIFA since 1988, but the national team has yet to win an official match in over sixty attempts. Two results stand out for the San Marinese; a 0-0 draw with Turkey in 1993, and a 1-1 draw with Latvia in 2001 (both in World Cup qualifiers). Famously, they took a shock first minute lead against England in 1993, before succumbing 7-1. Also they have won one friendly, 1-0 against Liechtenstein in 2004.

There is San Marino football league, called Campionato Sammarinese.


Main article: Demographics of San Marino; see also Demographics of Italy.

Being completely surrounded by Italy, there is no significant difference between the population of San Marino and Italy and many Italians live in San Marino.

The state has a population of less than 29,000 including 5,000 Sammarineses living in foreign countries and 1,000 foreigners living in San Marino.

The language spoken is Italian, and Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion.


Main article: Culture of San Marino

Miscellaneous topics

External links


  • Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2005 (2005). San Marino (country). Retrieved January 31, 2005.

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