Cincinnati, Ohio

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The article refers to the city in Ohio. For information on the city in Iowa, see Cincinnati, Iowa.

Cincinnati is a city in southwestern Ohio, United States that lies on the Ohio River and is the county seat of Hamilton County6. It is nicknamed "The Queen City" (also "The Queen of the West," "The Blue Chip City," and "The City of Seven Hills"), and is sometimes abbreviated to "Cincy", "Cinci", "Cinti" or "The 'Nati".

As of the 2000 census, Cincinnati had a total population of 317,361, making it the third largest city in Ohio. It has a much larger metropolitan area covering parts of Ohio, Kentucky and Indiana, with over two million residents. It is home to both the Reds and the Bengals, as well as major corporations such as Procter & Gamble, Kroger, Federated Department Stores (owner of Macy's and Bloomingdale's), Chiquita Brands International, Great American Insurance Company, and the US Playing Card Company.

Cincinnati, Ohio
City flag City seal
City nickname: "The Queen City"

Location in Hamilton County and the state of Ohio
County Hamilton County, Ohio
 - Total
 - Land
 - Water

206.1 km² (79.6 mi²)
202.0 km² (78.0 mi²)
4.1 km² (1.6 mi²) 2.01%
 - Total (2000)
 - Total (2004)
 - Metropolitan
 - Density

Time zone Eastern: UTC–5
Location 39° 8′ 10″ N, 84° 30′ 11″ W
Mayor Charles J. Luken
City website



Cincinnati was founded in 1788 by John Cleves Symmes. Surveyor John Filson (also the author the tale of Daniel Boone) named it "Losantiville"[1] from four terms, each of different language, meaning "The city opposite the mouth of the Licking River." "Ville" is French for "city," "anti" is Greek for "opposite," "os" is Latin for "mouth," and "L" was all that was included of "Licking River."

In 1790, Arthur St. Clair, the governor of the Northwest Territory, changed the name of the settlement to "Cincinnati" in honor of the Society of the Cincinnati, of which he was president. The society honored General George Washington, who was considered a latter day Cincinnatus—the Roman general who saved his city, then retired from power to his farm. To this day, Cincinnati in particular, and Ohio in general, are home to a disproportionately large number of descendants of Revolutionary War soldiers who were granted lands in the state.

In 1802, Cincinnati was chartered as a village, and in 1819, it was incorporated as a city. The introduction of steam navigation on the Ohio River in 1811 and the completion of the Miami and Erie Canal helped the city grow to 115,000 citizens by 1850. The nickname "Porkopolis" was coined around 1835, when Cincinnati was the country's chief hog packing center, and herds of pigs traveled the streets. Called the "Queen of the West" by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (although this nickname was first used by a local newspaper in 1819), Cincinnati was an important stop on the Underground Railroad, which helped slaves escape from the South. Cincinnati is also known as the "City of Seven Hills," which is probably a romantic reference to Rome and Cincinnatus, though there is no agreement on the specific hills [2]to which the name refers (however, see discussion section).

As a pioneer-era city, it compared with Pittsburgh and Nashville. As a "Riverboat" and canal-era city, it compared with Louisville, St. Louis and New Orleans. As an immigrant, industrial city it compared with Brooklyn, Philadelphia, Cleveland, Chicago, and Detroit.

Because of its river setting and extensive park system, many commentators have remarked on Cincinnati's beauty, including Winston Churchill, who called it "the most beautiful of America's inland cities." The city's picturesque skyline was used as a backdrop for the fictional city of Monticello on the soap opera The Edge of Night, one of the many soap operas sponsored by Cincinnati soap maker Procter & Gamble.

Cincinnati was a pioneer city in many respects. Included is the establishment of America's first fire departmentin 1853. Established in 1867, the Cincinnati Red Stockings (later, the Cincinnati Reds) became the first professional (all paid, no amateurs) baseball team in 1869. Additionally, in 1935, baseball's first night game was played at Crosley Field. Because of the city's rich German heritage, the pre-prohibition era allowed Cincinnati to become a national forerunner in the brewing industry.In 1943, King Records (and it's subsidiary, Queen Records) was founded, and went on to record early music performed by artists who became highly successful and influential in Country, R&B, and Rock. During experimentation for 6 years (until 1939), Cincinnati's AM radio station, WLW was the first to broadcast at an astounding 500,000 watts.

On December 3, 1979, Cincinnati's Riverfront Coliseum (now called the U.S. Bank Arena) was the site of one of the worst rock concert tragedies in United States history. Eleven fans were killed and several dozen others injured in the rush for seating at the opening of a sold-out concert by The Who. The concert was using "festival seating" (also known as "general seating" or "stadium seating"), where the best seats are available on a first-come, first-served basis. When the crowds waiting outside heard the band performing a soundcheck, they thought the concert was beginning and tried to rush into the still-closed doors, trampling those at the front of the crowd. The tragedy was blamed on poor crowd control, mainly the failure of arena management to open enough doors to deal with the crowd outside. As a result, concert venues across North America switched to assigned seating or changed their rules about festival seating. Cincinnati immediately outlawed festival seating at concerts, although it overturned the ban on August 4, 2004, since the ban was making it difficult for Cincinnati to book concerts. (Many music acts prefer festival seating because it allows the most enthusiastic fans to get near the stage and generate excitement for the rest of the crowd. In 2002, the city had made a one-time exception to the ban, allowing festival seating for a Bruce Springsteen concert.) Cincinnati was the only city in the U.S. to outlaw festival seating altogether.


Currently, although the City of Cincinnati generally votes Democrat like other Midwestern cities, Hamilton County and the rest of the metropolitan area generally votes Republican.

The city is governed by a nine-member city council, whose members are elected at large. Prior to 1924, city council was elected through a system of wards. The ward system lent itself to corruption and Cincinnati was run by the Republican political machine of Boss Cox from the 1880's through the 1920's with a few brief interludes. A reform movement arose in 1923, led by another Republican, Murray Seasongood. Seasongood eventually founded the Charter Committee, which used ballot initiatives in 1924 to eliminate the ward system and replace it with the current at-large system and also to introduce a city manager. From 1924 to 1957, the council was selected by proportional representation. As of 1957, all candidates run in a single race and the top nine vote-getters are elected (the "9-X system"). The mayor was selected by the council. Starting in 1987, the top vote-getter in the city council race automatically became mayor. Starting in 1999, the mayor was chosen in a separate election and the city manager accepted a lesser role in government; these reforms were referred to as the "strong mayor" reforms. Cincinnati politics includes the participation of the Charter Party, the third-party with the longest history of winning in local elections.

Race Relations

Race relations are an evolving challenge in Cincinnati.

Cincinnati was an important port for the Underground Railroad in pre-Civil War times. It is located right on the border of the slave state Kentucky and is often mentioned as a destination for many people escaping the bonds of slavery.

After the death of Martin Luther King Jr a deadly riot broke out in Cincinnati leaving two dead.

The shooting of an unarmed 19-year old Black male (Timothy Thomas) by Officer Steven Roach during an on-foot pursuit -- while a trial accusing the city's police department of Racial Profiling was taking place -- sparked the 2001 Cincinnati Riots.

Geography and climate


Cincinnati skyline at night, from the Kentucky shore.
Cincinnati skyline at night, from the Kentucky shore.

Cincinnati is located at 39° 8′ 10″ N, 84° 30′ 11″ W (39.136160, -84.503088).1

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 206.1 km² (79.6 mi²). 201.9 km² (78.0 mi²) of it is land and 4.1 km² (1.6 mi²) of it is water. The total area is 2.01% water.

The Cincinnati – Middletown Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), the 25th largest in the United States, has a population of 2,009,632. It includes the Ohio counties of Hamilton, Butler, Warren, Clermont and Brown, as well as the Kentucky counties of Boone, Bracken, Campbell, Gallatin, Grant, Kenton, and Pendleton, and the Indiana counties of Dearborn, Franklin, and Ohio.


Cincinnati's weather is temperate and seasonal. Summers are hot and humid with cool evenings. The mean annual temperature is 54 °F (12 °C), with an average annual snowfall of 32 inches (81.3 cm) and an average annual rainfall of 41 inches (1,040 mm). The wettest seasons are the spring and summer, although rainfall is fairly constant all year round. During the winter, particularly in January and February, several days of snow can be expected, allowing for winter sports. Winter temperatures range from 27 to 43 °F (−3 to 6 °C) and summer temperatures range from 66 to 86 °F (19 to 30 °C).[1] The highest recorded temperature was 103.0 °F (39.4 °C) on 1988-08-17, and the lowest recorded temperature was −22 °F (−30 °C) on 1994-01-19.[2]


Cincinnati's unique geography nestles its neighborhoods in small basins and the hillsides that overlook them. Because of this, many of the city's neighborhoods developed very strong personal identities. Today's outer neighborhoods such as Clifton and Carthage were originally settled as their own villages, with individual downtown sections of their own. Over-the-Rhine was an important neighborhood in German-American history.


City of Cincinnati
Population by year [3]

1810 - 2,540
1820 - 9,642
1830 - 24,831
1840 - 46,338
1850 - 115,435
1860 - 161,044
1870 - 216,239
1880 - 255,139
1890 - 296,908
1900 - 325,902
1910 - 363,591
1920 - 401,247
1930 - 451,160
1940 - 455,610
1950 - 503,998
1960 - 502,550
1970 - 452,524
1980 - 385,457
1990 - 364,040
2000 - 317,361

As of the census2 of 2003, there are 317,361 people, 166,012 households, and 72,566 families residing in the city. The population density is 1,640.5/km² (4,249.0/mi²). There are 166,012 housing units at an average density of 822.1/km² (2,129.2/mi²). The racial makeup of the city is 52.97% White, 42.92% Black or African American, 0.21% Native American, 1.55% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.63% from other races, and 1.68% from two or more races. 1.28% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There are 148,095 households out of which 25.1% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 26.6% are married couples living together, 18.6% have a female householder with no husband present, and 51.0% are non-families. 42.8% of all households are made up of individuals and 11.1% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.15 and the average family size is 3.02.

The age distribution is 24.5% under the age of 18, 12.9% from 18 to 24, 31.6% from 25 to 44, 18.7% from 45 to 64, and 12.3% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 32 years. For every 100 females there are 89.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 85.6 males.

The median income for a household in the city is $29,493, and the median income for a family is $37,543. Males have a median income of $33,063 versus $26,946 for females. The per capita income for the city is $19,962. 21.9% of the population and 18.2% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 32.0% of those under the age of 18 and 14.8% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.

Fountain Square

Tyler Davidson Fountain, centerpiece of Fountain Square.
Tyler Davidson Fountain, centerpiece of Fountain Square.

Fountain Square is a public square in Downtown Cincinnati, located at Fifth Street and Vine. Its centerpiece is the landmark bronze Tyler Davidson Fountain. The square is a popular hardscape, surrounded by hotels, banks, department stores, and restaurants. The space was donated to the city of Cincinnati by prominent citizen Henry Probasco and dedicated on its completion in 1871 to his brother-in-law, Tyler Davidson. In 1998 the fountain underwent extensive restoration. In September 2005 the fountain was temporarily moved to the Cincinnati Art Museum while Fountain Square itself undergoes extensive renovation.

Fountain Square was featured in the credits of the television series WKRP in Cincinnati.


Being situated on the Ohio River, Cincinnati is home to several prominent bridges that connect the downtown to Covington, Kentucky and Newport, Kentucky, including the picturesque John A. Roebling Suspension Bridge; the Daniel Carter Beard Bridge (aka The Big Mac Bridge); and the Purple People Bridge.



Cincinnati is served by two daily newspapers: The Cincinnati Enquirer, owned by Gannett Co., and The Cincinnati Post, owned by the E.W. Scripps Company, as well as an African American newspaper (The Cincinnati Herald) and weekly newspapers CityBeat and CiN Weekly. The city also has a leading online newspaper called The Cincinnati Nation.



  • These are the major talk and music radio stations in the Cincinnati area:
    • 55WKRC AM Talk Radio "The Talk Station"] [4]
    • NewsRadio 700 WLW AM "The Big One" [5]
    • Sacred Heart Radio 740 AM] [6]
    • News Talk 1160 WBOB AM] [7]
    • 1360 Homer AM "The Sports Animal" Sports Radio] [8]
    • 1530 WCKY AM "The Revolution of Talk Radio"] [9]
    • WAIF "What Radio Was Meant To Be" Community radio 88.3 FM [10]
    • WJVS "Joint Vocational School" Mon-Fri 8:00 AM to 3:00 PM on 88.3 FM
    • WGUC 90.9 FM NPR; Classical Music] [11]
    • WVXU 91.7 FM NPR; Public Radio] [12]
    • WOFX "The FOX" Classic Rock 92.5 FM] [13]
    • WAKW "New Life 93" Christian 93.3 FM] [14]
    • WVMX "Mix 94.1" Adult Contemporary FM] [15]
    • WMOJ "Jammin' Oldies" Oldies 94.9 FM] [16]
    • WYGY "The Star" Country 96.5 FM] [17]
    • WAQZ "Cincinnati's New Rock 97.3" Alternative Rock 97.3 FM] [18]
    • WOXY (FM) "97.7 Max FM"
    • WRRM "Warm 98" Soft Rock 98.5 FM] [19]
    • WIZF "The Wiz" Hip Hop-Rap-R&B 100.9 FM] [20]
    • WKRQ "Q 102" Top 40 101.9 FM] [21]
    • WEBN "WEBN" Rock 102.7 FM] [22]
    • WGRR "Oldies 103.5" Oldies 103.5 FM] [23]
    • WNLT "K Love" Contemporary Christian 104.3 FM] [24]
    • WNKU "Best Public Radio in the country" Eclectic music 89.7 FM] [25]
    • WUBE "B 105" Country 105.1 FM] [26]
    • WPFB "The Rebel" Country 105.9 FM] [27]
    • WKFS "KISS 107 FM" Top 40-Hip Hop-Rap 107.1] [28]
    • WDBZ "The Buzz of Cincinnati" 1320 AM Black Talk Radio






Famous Cincinnati Natives

William Howard Taft - President of the United States, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court

William Henry Harrison - President of the United States

Sarah Jessica Parker - Actress

Bootsy Collins - Musician

Jerry Springer - Talk show host

Roger Staubach - Football Player

Barry Larkin - Baseball Player

Ken Griffey Jr. - Baseball Player

Pete Rose - Baseball Player

Frank Duveneck - painter

Ulysses S. Grant - President of the United States, General

Neil Armstrong - Astronaut (First Man on the Moon)

Powel Crosley Jr. - Inventor, industrialist, and entrepreneur

Steven Spielberg - Producer/Director

Ted Turner - Media Mogul

Roy Rogers - The Singing Cowboy

Andy Williams - singer

Doris Day - Actress

William McGuffey - 19th century writer of The McGuffey Readers

Daniel Carter Beard - Founder of the Boy Scouts of America

Harriet Beecher Stowe - Author of "Uncle Tom's Cabin"

Thomas Worthington Whittredge - painter



Cincinnati Music Hall
Cincinnati Music Hall

Food culture



Major league teams

Minor league teams

Major colleges

The suburb of Mason hosts the Western & Southern Financial Group Masters, one of the nine (men's) tennis events in the ATP Tennis Masters Series. Nearby Sparta, Kentucky is home to Kentucky Speedway.

In March, 2005 and 2006, the US Bank Arena will host the Atlantic 10 Conference men's basketball tournament.

Every May since 2000, Cincinnati has hosted the annual Flying Pig Marathon which winds through downtown and northern Kentucky.

Company headquarters in Cincinnati

These companies have headquarters in Cincinnati:

Sister cities

Cincinnati has eight sister cities[3]: Gifu (Japan), Harare (Zimbabwe), Kharkiv (Ukraine), Liuzhou (China), Munich (Germany), Nancy (France), Taipei (Taiwan), and Taipei-Tsien (Taiwan). Cincinnati also has one un-official sister sity of Netanya (Israel).

See also


External links

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